Skip to main content

Table 1 Participants in the Focus Groups, Cognitive Debriefing Interviews (CDIs) and Surveys

From: Development and validation of a new instrument to measure perceived risks associated with the use of tobacco and nicotine-containing products

Variables Focus Groupsa CDIsb Survey 1
(N = 2020)
Survey 2
(N = 1640)
Sex, n (%)
 Male 109 (47.6) 42 (47.7) 932 (46.1) 792 (48.3)
 Female 120 (52.4) 46 (52.3) 1088 (53.9) 848 (51.7)
Age (years), Mean ± SD 39.7 ± 12.7 45.0 ± 17.4 42.9 ± 16.3
 18–25 years, n (%) 34 (14.8) 27 (30.7) na na
 26–50 years, n (%) 136 (59.4) 34 (38.6) na na
 51–65 years, n (%) 59 (25.8) 26 (29.5) na na
 18–30 years, n (%) na na 560 (27.7) 509 (31.0)
 31–45 years, n (%) na na 636 (31.5) 544 (33.2)
 46+ years, n (%) na na 824 (40.8) 587 (35.8)
Race, n (%)
 Caucasian    1628 (80.6) 1309 (79.9)
 African-American    152 (7.5) 128 (7.8)
 Other    240 (11.9) 203 (12.4)
Education Level, n (%)
 High school and less 68 (29.7) 30 (34.1) 705 (34.9) 634 (38.7)
 Some college and more 142 (62.0) 58 (65.9) 1315 (65.1) 1006 (61.3)
 Other 19 (8.3)
Smoking Status, n (%)
 Adult smoker with no intention to quit 71 (31.0) 22 (25.0) 437 (21.6) 408 (24.9)
 Adult smoker motivated to quit 39 (17.0) 22 (25.0) 461 (22.8) 408 (24.9)
 Adult former smoker 62 (27.1) 22 (25.0) 516 (25.5) 407 (24.8)
 Adult never smoker 57 (24.9) 22 (25.0) 606 (30.0) 417 (25.4)
  1. SD standard deviation
  2. aNine focus groups, conducted in London (n = 3), Birmingham (n = 3), and Glasgow (n = 3); Four focus groups conducted in Rome and in Tokyo; Twelve focus groups, conducted in Atlanta (n = 4), Los Angeles (n = 4) and Philadelphia (n = 4)
  3. bForty CDIs conducted in London (n = 20), Manchester (n = 10), and Glasgow (n = 10); Forty eight CDIs conducted in Atlanta (n = 23) and Los Angeles (n = 25)