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Table 3 Adjusted* odds ratios of caregiver quality of life from high caregiving intensity by race/ethnicity, gender, age, and income

From: Socioeconomic and demographic factors modify observed relationship between caregiving intensity and three dimensions of quality of life in informal adult children caregivers

  Social Strain Negative Emotional Burden Positive Emotional Benefit
Odds Ratio 95% Confidence Interval P-Value N Odds Ratio 95% Confidence Interval P-Value N Odds Ratio 95% Confidence Interval P-Value N
ADLs
 Overall 3.89 (2.44, 6.21) <  0.001 567 1.82 (1.17, 2.83) 0.01 567 0.96 (0.58, 1.56) 0.857 567
Race/Ethnicity
 White, NH 3.85 (2.17, 6.81) <  0.001 366 1.92 (1.09, 3.39) 0.02 366 0.44 (0.19, 1.02) 0.055 366
 Black, NH 5.04 (1.78, 14.31) 0.002 149 1.79 (0.76, 4.20) 0.183 149 2.68 (1.20, 6.01) 0.02 149
 Other 5.83 (1.05, 32.27) 0.043 52 2.49 (0.48, 12.98) 0.278 52 0.59 (0.11, 3.27) 0.549 52
Gender
 Male 3.65 (1.38, 9.65) 0.009 196 1.36 (0.58, 3.17) 0.478 196 0.45 (0.17, 1.22) 0.118 196
 Female 3.76 (2.20, 6.44) <  0.001 371 1.96 (1.16, 3.31) 0.01 371 1.30 (0.72, 2.33) 0.384 371
Age
  < 45 years 1.79 (0.37, 8.75) 0.472 79 0.75 (0.23, 2.50) 0.642 71 1.63 (0.47, 5.66) 0.439 79
 45–54 years 3.30 (1.48, 7.33) 0.003 200 3.14 (1.47, 6.72) 0 200 1.64 (0.77, 3.50) 0.204 200
 55–64 years 5.56 (2.65, 11.65) <  0.001 223 1.61 (0.78, 3.30) 0.196 223 0.42 (0.14, 1.28) 0.125 223
 65+ years 4.07 (1.00, 16.58) 0.051 65 2.75 (0.48, 15.84) 0.258 65 0.41 (0.08, 2.14) 0.289 65
Income
 $0–24,999 2.68 (1.16, 6.18) 0.021 174 1.53 (0.78, 3.02) 0.218 174 1.10 (0.51, 2.36) 0.810 174
 $25,000-49,999 3.40 (1.37, 8.46) 0.008 130 1.52 (0.58, 3.97) 0.398 130 1.20 (0.43, 3.40) 0.726 130
 $50,000-74,999 2.85 (0.81, 10.05) 0.103 94 1.46 (0.43, 5.01) 0.547 94 0.48 (0.10, 2.35) 0.362 94
 $75,000 + 6.46 (2.50, 16.73) <  0.001 169 2.71 (0.98, 7.95) 0.054 169 0.88 (0.30, 2.62) 0.822 169
IADLs
 Overall 2.90 (1.80, 4.67) <  0.001 567 1.48 (0.94, 2.35) 0.091 567 1.36 (0.85, 2.20) 0.202 567
Race/Ethnicity
 White, NH 2.40 (1.32, 4.37) 0.004 296 1.60 (0.88, 2.92) 0.123 366 1.16 (0.57, 2.37) 0.675 366
 Black, NH 2.27 (0.86, 6.00) 0.099 128 1.42 (0.59, 3.38) 0.432 149 1.73 (0.78, 3.86) 0.178 149
 Other 31.54 (3.30, 301.6) 0.003 44 1.50 (0.35, 6.47) 0.591 52 1.53 (0.40, 5.80) 0.531 52
Gender
 Male 2.12 (0.75, 6.00) 0.157 174 1.04 (0.40, 2.67) 0.940 196 1.53 (0.65, 3.62) 0.335 196
 Female 3.15 (1.83, 5.42) <  0.001 294 1.64 (0.97, 2.79) 0.065 371 1.27 (0.71, 2.27) 0.416 371
Age
  < 45 years 1.55 (0.32, 7.49) 0.584 79 1.59 (0.50, 5.02) 0.429 79 6.22 (1.74, 22.15) 0.01 79
 45–54 years 2.23 (0.98, 5.06) 0.055 200 1.87 (0.84, 4.20) 0.127 200 1.39 (0.62, 3.10) 0.429 200
 55–64 years 3.56 (1.68, 7.52) 0.001 223 1.04 (0.49, 2.21) 0.913 223 0.75 (0.29, 1.89) 0.536 223
 65+ years 5.34 (1.08, 26.28) 0.040 65 4.40 (0.72, 26.84) 0.109 65 1.23 (0.25, 6.05) 0.803 65
Income
 $0–24,999 3.09 (1.35, 7.09) 0.008 174 1.64 (0.83, 3.23) 0.157 174 1.15 (0.53, 2.47) 0.723 174
 $25,000-49,999 2.50 (0.94, 6.67) 0.068 130 1.23 (0.41, 3.87) 0.718 130 1.90 (0.60, 5.97) 0.274 130
$50,000-74,999 2.46 (0.65, 9.29) 0.184 94 4.02 (1.11, 14.52) 0.03 94 1.81 (0.52, 6.35) 0.352 94
 $75,000 + 4.25 (1.56, 11.54) 0.005 169 0.72 (0.19, 2.72) 0.630 169 1.45 (0.56, 3.78) 0.450 169
Hours of caregiving per week
 Overall 4.88 (2.91, 8.19) <  0.001 562 2.57 (1.60, 4.13) <  0.001 562 1.42 (0.85, 2.36) 0.182 562
Race/Ethnicity
 White, NH 7.49 (3.82, 14.68) <  0.001 362 3.23 (1.69, 6.18) <  0.001 362 0.73 (0.29, 1.83) 0.497 362
 Black, NH 2.93 (1.11, 7.76) 0.031 148 1.98 (0.85, 4.57) 0.111 148 2.60 (1.19, 5.69) 0.02 148
 Other 1.96 (0.32, 12.01) 0.469 52 1.98 (0.44, 8.96) 0.375 52 1.26 (0.27, 5.77) 0.769 52
Gender
 Male 4.93 (1.66, 14.58) 0.004 194 2.98 (1.20, 7.38) 0.02 194 0.45 (0.15, 1.37) 0.160 194
 Female 4.69 (2.59, 8.50) <  0.001 368 2.36 (1.35, 4.12) 0 368 2.17 (1.19, 3.93) 0.01 368
Age
  < 45 years 1.97 (0.39, 9.91) 0.412 79 0.76 (0.22, 2.66) 0.668 79 8.49 (2.19, 32.96) 0 79
 45–54 years 4.07 (1.68, 9.84) 0.002 199 4.73 (2.06, 10.88) <  0.001 199 1.84 (0.80, 4.21) 0.149 199
 55–64 years 7.77 (3.38, 17.87) <  0.001 220 2.13 (1.00, 4.57) 0.051 220 0.27 (0.07, 0.99) 0.05 220
 65+ years 5.05 (1.00, 25.60) 0.050 64 8.43 (1.25, 57.06) 0.029 64 1.37 (0.27, 7.03) 0.706 64
Income
 $0–24,999 3.45 (1.45, 8.21) 0.005 173 2.75 (1.40, 5.41) 0 173 1.96 (0.95, 4.08) 0.071 173
 $25,000-49,999 11.46 (3.75, 34.97) <  0.001 129 2.08 (0.69, 6.27) 0.195 129 0.71 (0.18, 2.78) 0.628 129
 $50,000-74,999 9.99 (2.18, 45.76) 0.003 94 4.04 (0.93, 17.61) 0.063 94 0.84 (0.14, 4.88) 0.842 94
 $75,000 + 3.16 (0.99, 10.07) 0.052 166 1.60 (0.40, 6.37) 0.508 166 1.25 (0.37, 4.18) 0.721 166
Years of caregiving
 Overall 0.56 (0.33, 0.97) 0.040 498 1.23 (0.77, 1.96) 0.380 498 0.78 (0.48, 1.26) 0.308 498
Race/Ethnicity
 White, NH 0.64 (0.33, 1.28) 0.206 325 1.39 (0.76, 2.56) 0.285 325 0.67 (0.33, 1.36) 0.266 325
 Black, NH 0.48 (0.17, 1.38) 0.172 129 1.10 (0.46, 2.61) 0.836 129 0.68 (0.30, 1.54) 0.349 129
 Other 0.29 (0.03, 2.96) 0.294 44 1.00 (0.22, 4.54) 0.996 44 1.48 (0.35, 6.27) 0.597 44
Gender
 Male 0.32 (0.10, 1.07) 0.064 181 1.07 (0.45, 2.54) 0.887 181 0.94 (0.43, 2.06) 0.885 181
 Female 0.65 (0.35, 1.22) 0.179 317 1.31 (0.75, 2.27) 0.342 317 0.65 (0.34, 1.22) 0.181 317
Age
  < 45 years 0.998 67 0.80 (0.24, 2.68) 0.713 67 1.58 (0.42, 5.88) 0.497 67
 45–54 years 1.01 (0.43, 2.39) 0.985 174 1.59 (0.70, 3.60) 0.268 174 0.69 (0.30, 1.59) 0.384 174
 55–64 years 0.32 (0.12, 0.83) 0.019 203 0.99 (0.49, 2.00) 0.987 203 0.56 (0.24, 1.33) 0.190 203
 65+ years 1.73 (0.39, 7.77) 0.475 54 2.52 (0.29, 21.98) 0.403 54 1.31 (0.33, 5.26) 0.706 54
Income
 $0–24,999 0.36 (0.14, 0.93) 0.035 146 1.13 (0.56, 2.29) 0.727 146 0.62 (0.27, 1.42) 0.256 146
 $25,000-49,999 0.28 (0.07, 1.04) 0.058 112 1.35 (0.45, 4.06) 0.590 112 1.40 (0.50, 3.93) 0.527 112
 $50,000-74,999 1.18 (0.26, 5.39) 0.828 85 1.39 (0.32, 6.12) 0.662 85 0.74 (0.21, 2.65) 0.644 85
 $75,000 + 0.98 (0.37, 2.63) 0.972 155 1.47 (0.53, 4.11) 0.458 155 0.62 (0.24, 1.61) 0.324 155
  1. Bolded results are statistically significant (p < 0.05)
  2. *Adjusted for marital status, co-residence with care recipient, and each of the effect modifiers except the one being used in the individual effect modification model. For example, for the models stratified by income category - age, gender, and race/ethnicity are treated as confounders