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Table 7 Multivariate regression model for socio-demographic characteristics, clinical factor and physical side effect, psychological effects and self-esteem in cancer patients in Malaysia (n = 1620)

From: Determinants of quality of life among Malaysian cancer patients: a cross-sectional study

Characteristics Physical health Psychological health Social relationships Environment
B p B p B p B p
Age
 < 45 −1.75 0.24 0.25 0.85 /# / 0.47 0.77
 45–54 0.37 0.71 6.21 0.00* / / 1.09 0.33
 55–64 3.31 0.00* 0.97 0.18 / / 1.65 0.06
 > 65 Ref+ Ref / / Ref
Race
 Malay Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Chinese 5.36 0.64 − 0.11 0.99 − 1.18 0.30 5.47 0.65
 Indian 2.28 0.00* − 2.64 0.03* − 3.72 0.01* −6.73 0.00*
 Other −0.30 0.68 0.58 0.60 0.58 0.77 0.39 0.41
Religious
 Muslim Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Buddhist − 8.17 0.47 −0.95 0.92 − 26.68 0.06 −9.56 0.43
 Hindu − 5.95 0.00* − 2.31 0.01* - 1.98 0.04* − 7.62 0.00*
 Christian 6.78 0.57 10.22 0.35 9.08 0.48 6.07 0.63
Marital status
 Married / / / / / / Ref
 Single / / / / / / −3.71 0.01
 Divorce/Widow / / / / / / −3.42 0.00*
Education level
 No formal education −2.05 0.03* 0.12 0.89 / / − 1.81 0.08
 Diploma & Less Ref Ref / / Ref
 University level −0.88 0.51 −2.22 0.07 / / −1.75 0.22
Working status
 Yes Ref Ref Ref Ref
 No −1.04 0.26 −1.34 0.12 1.99 0.01* −0.58 0.56
 Retired −2.68 0.00* 0.74 0.41 0.30 0.76 −1.89 0.07
Family history of cancer / / 1.78 0.00* / / / /
Type of Cancer
 Breast Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Ovarian −4.89 0.00* 0.26 0.86 −2.71 0.17 −6.67 0.00*
 Cervical − 0.99 0.93 1.57 0.15 9.27 0.00* 0.88 0.48
 Colorectal −3.24 0.00* 0.30 0.70 0.74 0.45 −3.04 0.01*
 Lymphoma −2.08 0.13 −1.26 0.32 3.72 0.23 −2.38 0.11
 Stomach −8.57 0.00* − 0.42 0.68 −8.43 0.00* −8.19 0.00*
 Others −3.77 0.00* −0.53 0.59 −7.79 0.00* −3.37 0.03*
Cancer stage
 I −0.53 0.69 0.54 0.66 −2.52 0.06 −1.57 0.28
 II −0.10 0.92 −0.10 0.91 3.62 0.00* −0.46 0.69
 III 0.68 0.34 −4.79 0.00* 0.73 0.39 0.26 0.73
 IV Ref Ref Ref Ref
Type of cancer treatment −0.42 0.19 −1.83 0.00* / / 1.50 0.29
Cycle of cancer treatment −3.88 0.00* −1.57 0.05 7.14 0.00* − 4.36 0.00*
Pain due to cancer (yes) −4.58 0.00* 1.43 0.10 7.32 0.00* − 5.57 0.00*
Vomiting (yes) 0.58 0.69 −5.59 0.00* −5.39 0.00* −0.61 0.69
Nausea (yes) −9.51 0.00* −10.90 0.00* 9.83 0.00* −7.61 0.00*
Fatigue (yes) −2.55 0.04* − 0.44 0.70 −6.43 0.01* − 3.97 0.00*
Hair loss (yes) 14.19 0.00* 5.42 0.00* 9.37 0.00* 13.35 0.00*
Bleeding (yes) −7.89 0.00* −6.74 0.00* − 13.99 0.00* − 6.84 0.00*
Anxiety (yes) −5.35 0.00* 4.23 0.00* 0.17 0.92 −2.73 0.11
Depression (yes) 2.87 0.06 −0.42 0.77 −10.84 0.00* 1.41 0.39
Self-esteem 1.20 0.00* 0.90 0.00* 1.46 0.00* 1.25 0.00*
Constant 49.78 0.00 53.55 0.00 17.43 0.00 48.61 0.00
Adjusted R Square 0.69 0.70 0.68 0.65
Model Fit Data F = 112.42, p < 0.000 F = 113.24, p < 0.000 F = 128.28, p < 0.000 F = 88.39, p < 0.000
  1. # The symbol of “/”means that variable not include in the final module of regression because significant in bivariate analysis; +References Group; B, Unstandardized Coefficients; p, *significant at p < 0.05; © 1USD = 4 MY