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Table 2 ITQOL data at baseline (Day 1) and Day 42a

From: Health-related quality of life, temperament, and eating behavior among formula-fed infants in the Philippines: a pilot study

  Baseline, Day 1
N = 40
Day 42b
N = 39
Infant-focused Conceptsc   Cronbach’s α   Cronbach’s α
Overall Health (1 item)   NA   NA
 Male 85.0 (60.0, 92.5)   85.0 (60.0, 85.0)  
 Female 85.0 (85.0, 92.5)   85.0 (60.0, 100.0)  
 Total 85.0 (85.0, 92.5)   85.0 (60.0, 100.0)  
Growth and Development (10 items) 0.88 0.82
 Male 91.5 (84.0, 99.0)   93.0 (84.0, 100.0)  
 Female 91.5 (80.0, 99.0)   98.0 (85.0, 100.0)  
 Total 91.5 (81.5, 99.0)   93.0 (85.0, 100.0)  
Bodily Pain/Discomfort (3 items) 0.83 0.79
 Male 100.0 (87.5, 100.0)   87.5 (71.0, 100.0)  
 Female 87.5 (83.0, 100.0)   100.0 (83.0, 100.0)  
 Total 100.0 (83.0, 100.0)   92.0 (75.0, 100.0)  
Temperament and Moods (18 items) 0.72 0.65
 Male 67.5 (62.0, 74.0)   72.0 (67.0, 81.0)  
 Female 69.5 (62.0, 78.0)   72.0 (68.0, 83.0)d  
 Total 68.0 (62.0, 75.5)   72.0 (67.0, 81.0)d  
General Health Perceptions (11 items) 0.56 0.66
 Male 76.0 (73.0, 84.0)   77.0 (68.0, 86.5)  
 Female 81.0 (74.0, 89.0)   82.0 (77.0, 91.0)  
 Total 77.0 (73.0, 87.5)   80.0 (68.0, 91.0)  
Parent- focused Concepts
Parental Impact-Emotional (7 items) 0.95 0.88
 Male 93.0 (75.0, 100.0)   82.0 (66.0, 96.0)  
 Female 93.0 (84.0, 100.0)   93.0 (79.0, 100.0)  
 Total 93.0 (79.0, 100.0)   86.0 (71.0, 100.0)  
Parental Impact-Time (7 items) 0.95 0.96
 Male 90.0 (73.5, 100.0)   95.0 (64.5, 100.0)  
 Female 90.0 (78.5, 100.0)   100.0 (76.0, 100.0)  
 Total 90.0 (76.0, 100.0)   100.0 (67.0, 100.0)  
Family Cohesion (1 item) NA NA
 Male 85.0 (60.0, 100.0)   60.0 (60.0, 92.5)  
 Female 85.0 (60.0, 92.5)   85.0 (60.0, 100.0)  
 Total 85.0 (60.0, 100.0)   85.0 (60.0, 100.0)  
  1. aData presented as median (Inter-quartile range, Q1, Q3) where higher concept scores represent better HRQoL
  2. bWilcoxon Sign Rank test was used to test for differences in change from Day 1 to Day 42 by sex and total
  3. cPhysical abilities concept not included in the analysis due to large number of items marked as “not doing yet”; Day 1, N = 9 and Day 42, N = 15
  4. dSignificant at α level of < 0.01
  5. NA, not applicable; Cronbach’s alpha cannot be calculated for overall health and family which are assessed with single items