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Table 1 Infant, parent and household characteristics at time of enrollment a

From: Health-related quality of life, temperament, and eating behavior among formula-fed infants in the Philippines: a pilot study

  Male (n = 20) Female (n = 20) P valuesb Total (N = 40)
Infant
 Age, days 31.8 ± 2.6 31.5 ± 1.8 0.54 31.6 ± 2.0
 Gestational age, weeks 39.1 ± 1.1 38.8 ± 1.3 0.43 38.9 ± 1.2
 Weight, gram 4274 ± 332 4061 ± 505 0.12 4167 ± 435
 Length, cm 52.6 ± 1.8 51.8 ± 1.5 0.14 52.2 ± 1.7
 BMI z-score 0.97 ± 1.12 0.82 ± 0.86 0.64 0.90 ± 0.99
 Head circumference, cm 36.7 ± 0.8 35.9 ± 1.0 0.02 36.2 ± 0.9
 Type of delivery, % cesarean 3 (15.0) 6 (30.0) 0.45 9 (22.5)
 Previously breastfed, % yes 18 (90.0) 17 (85.0) 1.00 35 (87.5)
 Prior breastfeeding, days 9.9 ± 7.0 9.4 ± 4.4 0.80 9.6 ± 5.8
Mother
 Mother’s age, years 25.9 ± 5.0 26.3 ± 6.1 0.82 26.1 ± 5.5
 Mother’s highest level of education   0.73  
  Vocational school 7 (35.0) 10 (50.0)   17 (42.5)
  High school 2 (10.0) 1 (5.0)   3 (7.5)
 Any college 11(55.0) 9 (45.0)   20 (50)
 Employed/self-employed, % full-time 6 (30.0) 8 (40.0) 0.74 14 (35.0)
Father
 Father’s age, years 28.9 ± 6.4 29.2 ± 6.5 0.88 29.0 ± 6.3
 Father’ highest level of educationc   1.00  
  Vocational school 13 (65.0) 11 (55.0)   24 (60.0)
  High school 1 (5.0) 1 (5.0)   2 (5.0)
  Any college 6 (30.0) 6 (30.0)   12 (15.0)
 Employed/self-employed, % full-time 17 (85.0) 18 (90.0) 1.00 35 (87.5)
Household
 Number of children (less than 18 years old) living in the household    0.72  
1 child 2 (10.0) 0 (00.0)   2 (5.0)
2 children 4 (20.0) 6 (30.0)   10 (25.0)
3 children 8 (40.0) 7 (35.0)   15 (37.5)
4 children 4 (20.0) 5 (25.0)   9 (22.5)
5 or more children 2 (10.0) 2 (10.0)   4 (10.0)
 Household monthly income    0.61  
  10,001–20,000 Pesos 12 (60.0) 12 (60.0)   24 (60.0)
  20,001–35,000 Pesos 6 (30.0) 4 (20.0)   10 (25.0)
  35,001–60,000 Pesos 2 (10.0) 4 (20.0)   6 (15.0)
  1. aData presented as mean ± standard deviation or number (%);
  2. bStudent’s T-test or Fisher’s exact test used for P-value for the comparison between males and females;
  3. cFather’s education, available data, n = 38