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Table 5 Association of PA and QOL - Different levels of PA and linear association

From: Quality of life and physical activity in long-term (≥5 years post-diagnosis) colorectal cancer survivors - systematic review

  Statistical significance (p <0.05) and clinical relevance
  Different levels of PA +/−: significant positive/negative association
ns: not statistically significant
.: not reported
a,b,cclinical relevance
Study C30 QL PF RF EF SF CF
Van Roekel 2015 [32] >LPA (Q4 = ≥23.0 h/wk) vs.
<LPA (Q1 = ≤2.0 h/wk)
ns +b +b . ns .
>LPA (Q3 = 10.0-22.0 h/wk) vs.
<LPA (Q1 = ≤2.0 h/wk)
. . . . . .
>MVPA (Q4 = ≥15.5 h/wk) vs.
<MVPA (Q1 = ≤4.3 h/wk)
ns +b ns . ns .
>MVPA (Q3 = 8.7-15.0 h/wk) vs.
<MVPA (Q1 = ≤4.3 h/wk)
ns . +b . +b .
Study SF-36 PF RP BP SF MH RE VT GH GCS PCS MCS
Thraen-Borowski 2013 [37] >MVPA (Q4 = ≥11.3 h/wk) vs.
<MVPA (Q1 = 0.0 h/wk)
. . . . . . . . . +b ns
>LPA (Q4 = ≥13.0 h/wk) vs.
<LPA (Q1 = ≤1.5 h/wk)d
. . . . . . . . . ns ns
>LPA (Q4 = ≥9.0 h/wk) vs.
<LPA (Q1 = 0.0 h/wk)e
. . . . . . . . . +b +b
>Planned exercisef (Q4 = ≥9.5 h/wk) vs. <Planned exercise (Q1 = 0.0 h/wk) . . . . . . . . . +b ns
>Non-exerciseg (Q4 = ≥16.5 h/wk) vs.
<Non-exercise (Q1 = ≤1.6 h/wk)
. . . . . . . . . + ns
Study WHODAS/ CIS/ HADS DIS FA DIST
Van Roekel 2015 [32] >LPA (Q4 = ≥23.0 h/wk) vs.
<LPA (Q1 = ≤2.0 h/wk)
c ns ns
>LPA (Q3 = 10.0-22.0 h/wk) vs.
<LPA (Q1 = ≤2.0 h/wk)
ns c ns
>MVPA (Q4 = ≥15.5 h/wk) vs.
<MVPA (Q1 = ≤4.3 h/wk)
ns ns ns
>MVPA (Q3 = 8.7-15.0 h/wk) vs.
<MVPA (Q1 = ≤4.3 h/wk)
c c c
Study PROMIS/ EQ-5D Physical HRQOL Mental HRQOL Overall HRQOL
Rodriguez 2015 [36] MVPA min/wk.
No MVPA - Ref.
≤60, 61–149, 150+
ns ns +c (61–149, 150+)
ns (≤ 60)
Linear association PA and QOL (continuous results)
Study C30 QL PF RF EF SF CF
Hussonn 2015 [34] Continuous: Additional hour of MVPA/wk., Interindividualh + + + + + +
Continuous: Additional hour of MVPA/wk., Intraindividuali ns + ns ns ns +
Van Roekel 2016 [33] Single-variable model, PAj ns + ns . ns .
Partition model, PAk ns + ns . ns .
Substituting 1 h/day of sedentary time with PA ns +a ns . ns .
Substituting 1 h/day of standing time with PA ns ns ns . ns .
Study WHODAS/ CIS/ HADS DIS FA ANX DEP
Van Roekel 2016 [33] Single-variable model PAj c ns ns ns
Partition model PAk ns ns ns ns
Substituting 1 h/day of sedentary time with PA ns ns ns ns
Substituting 1 h/day of standing time with PA ns ns ns ns
  1. PA physical activity, QOL quality of life, C30 (European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 questionnaire), QL global quality of life, PF physical functioning, RF role functioning, EF emotional functioning, SF social functioning, CF cognitive functioning; > more; < less, LPA light physical activity (<3 MET), Q Quartile, h/wk hours per week, MVPA moderate to vigorous physical activity (≥3 MET), SF-36 (The Short Form Health Survey) PF physical functioning, RP role limitations due to physical health problems, BP bodily pain, SF social functioning, MH general mental health, RE role limitations due to emotional problems, VT vitality, GH general health perceptions, GCS global health composite score, PCS physical composite score, MCS mental composite score, WHODAS (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II) DIS disability, CIS (Checklist Individual Strength) FA fatigue, HADS (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), DIST distress, ANX anxiety, DEP depression, PROMIS (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System), EQ-5D (EuroQol Five-Dimensions Questionnaire), Ref. Reference, aclinical relevance reported by authors; bclinical relevance calculated by RE; cclinical relevance: no values, no cut-off for calculation available; dparticipants reported LPA and MVPA; eparticipants reported only LPA; fintentional exercise e.g. jogging; gnon-intentional exercise e.g. gardening; hinterindividual: patients average amount of PA/ average level PA of total group; iintraindividual: patients PA level at one time point/ patients average PA level; jPA was entered separately in a single confounder-adjusted model, without adjustment for any of the other activities (sedentary, standing); kall activity categories (sedentary, standing, PA) were entered simultaneously in a single confounder-adjusted model, to estimate independent associations of each activity category