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Table 2 Demographic and clinical characteristics of study participants (N = 165) and scales measuring self-efficacy, depression, diabetes distress and well-being

From: Assessing self-efficacy in type 2 diabetes management: validation of the Italian version of the Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale (IT-DMSES)

Characteristics N(%) or mean ± SD
Gender
 Males 110 (66.7%)
 Females 55 (33.3%)
Age (years) (mean ± SD) 65.2 ± 9 (range 35–80)
Living situation
 With a spouse/partner 114 (79.7%)
 With parents 7 (4.9)
 Alone 22 (15.4%)
Level of education
 Elementary school 54 (33.1%)
 Middle school 63 (38.7%)
 High school 34 (20.9%)
 College and above 12 (7.4%)
No. of years since diagnosed with diabetes, no. (%)
  < 1 year 11 (6.9%)
 1–15 years 91 (56.9%)
  > 15 years 58 (36.3%)
Occupational status
 Employed 40 (24.2%)
 Retired 118 (71.5%)
 Unemployed 2 (1.2%)
BMI (kg/m2)
 Underweight 1 (0.6%)
 Normal weight 20 (12.1%)
 Overweight 51 (30.9%)
 Obese 94 (57.0%)
  BMI 30–34.99 55 (33.3%)
  BMI 35–39.99 27 (16.4%)
  BMI ≥ 40 10 (6.1%)
HbA1ca (mean ± SD) 57.28 ± 10.3
 HbA1c ≤53 mmol/mol 61 (37%)
 HbA1c > 53 mmol/mol 104 (63%)
Treatment regimen
 Diet/exercise only 10 (6.1%)
 Oral hypoglycemic agent 71 (43%)
 Insulin 11 (6.7%)
 Oral hypoglycemic agent + insulin 73 (44.2%)
Co-morbidities
 Hypertension 126 (76.4%)
 Thyroid disease 45 (27.3%)
 Dyslipidemia 141 (85.5%)
 Ischemic heart disease 33 (20%)
Complications
 Kidney disease 23 (13.9%)
 Eye damage 26 (15.8%)
 Neurological disease 21 (12.7%)
 Foot complications 2 (1.2%)
 Peripheral circulatory complications 12 (7.3%)
IT-DMSES scoresb
 Mean IT-DMSES 1 factor score 8.53 ± 1.63
 Mean IT-DMSES 2 factor score 6.83 ± 1.76
PHQ-9 scorec
 No depression 99 (62.7%)
 Mild depression 40 (25.2%)
 Moderate depression 17 (10.8%)
 Moderately severe depression 2 (1.3%)
Mean PAID-5 scored 39.32 ± 27.14
 Cut-off ≥40 (elevated diabetes distress) 83 (51.2%)
Mean WHO-5 scoree 63.43 ± 21.21
 Good psychological well-being 118 (74.2%)
 Poor psychological well-being 28 (17.6%)
 Likely depression 13 (8.2%)
  1. Abbreviations: IT-DMSES Italian version of the Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale, PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire, PAID-5 the Problem Areas in Diabetes-Short Form, WHO-5 Well-Being Index
  2. aHbA1c values: generic target, not modified on patient characteristics
  3. Missing values: 22 living situation; 2 level of education; 5 n. of years since diagnosed with diabetes; 5 occupational status;
  4. b6 missing values
  5. c7 missing values
  6. d3 missing values
  7. e6 missing values