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Table 1 Comments to items during pilot administration

From: Assessing self-efficacy in type 2 diabetes management: validation of the Italian version of the Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale (IT-DMSES)



2, 3

(1) people who do not have access to blood glucose monitors may just have the feeling of having high or low;

(2) people guess whether their blood glucose is low or high based on expected or unknown symptoms;

(3) people guess how to cope with these possible symptoms by changing food intake or insulin intake;

(4) Never experienced a low glucose so they never had to correct it.


“even if I am able to choose correct foods for my health, doesn’t mean that I do it because I am greedy”


Someone did not understand the term ‘when I am ill’, was clarified using examples like “when you have a high temperature”.

11, 12

It was necessary to explain the difference between following a healthy diet when eating outside the home (in a place that the person chooses) or eating out in places that the person does not choose (eg parties, birthdays where the person cannot choose what to eat).