Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 3 Analysis of variance and test of mean differences for eight health sub-scales by age, education and wealth status

From: Women’s health status in urban Ghana: dimensions and differentials using short form 36

Age group Mean scores (standard deviation) for Short Form −36 Eight Health Sub-scales
PF RP BP GH SF VT RE MH
20-29 96.4 (9.8) 86.9 (30.2) 79.0 (21.3) 79.4 (16.4) 92.1 (15.1) 76.3 (13.1) 86.2 (32.6) 79.1 (14.8)
30-39 93.1 (13.3) 86.6 (30.6) 76.2 (22.1) 75.7 (17.2) 89.4 (18.3) 73.0 (13.9) 82.8 (34.9) 77.3 (14.9)
40-49 89.6 (13.6) 80.1 (36.1) 72.3 (23.2) 70.7 (18.5) 89.3 (17.9) 70.6 (14.1) 79.7 (37.4) 77.0 (14.5)
50-59 78.2 (20.3) 72.3 (41.3) 70.8 (23.6) 68.1 (19.0) 87.2 (20.6) 67.3 (14.7) 82.4 (36.4) 76.9 (14.1)
60+ 58.9 (28.6) 59.2 (46.0) 61.2 (26.5) 58.8 (22.1) 77.7 (27.9) 62.3 (17.4) 78.4 (38.9) 76.1 (15.8)
F-ratio F[4, 2804] = 373.71* F[4, 2808] = 47.38* F[4, 2804] = 45.34* F[4, 2808] = 97.46* F[4, 2808] = 40.25* F[4, 2808] = 71.14* F[4, 2806] = 4.95* F[4, 2808] = .3.24*
Multiple comparisons test of mean differences (MD) and standard errors (SE) between health sub-scales and each age group
Broad age groups MD [SE] MD [SE] MD [SE] MD [SE] MD [SE] MD [SE] MD [SE] MD [SE]
20 -29 30 -39 3.27* [1.10] 1.84 [2.13] 3.11 [1.32] 3.86*[1.06] 3.17 [1.20] 3.45*[0.84] 4.75 [2.04] 1.89 [0.84]
  40 -49 6.24* [1.21] 5.73 [2.35] 6.24*[1.46] 8.43*[1.16] 2.68 [1.32] 5.36* [0.93] 7.07*[2.26] 2.07 [0.93]
  50 -59 17.73*[1.38] 14.24*[2.68] 8.26*[1.67] 11.52*[1.33] 4.82*[1.51] 9.04*[1.05] 4.99 [2.57] 2.78 [1.06]
  60+ 39.98*[1.05] 29.71*[2.04] 18.86*[1.27] 21.87*[1.01] 16.52*[1.15] 14.78*[0.80] 9.78*[1.96] 3.50*[0.81]
30 -39 40 -49 2.97 [1.20] 3.89 [2.33] 3.13[1.45] 4.56*[1.16] −0.48 [1.31] 1.91[0.92] 2.31[2.23] 0.17 [0.92]
  50 -59 14.46*[1.37] 12.40*[2.66] 5.14*[1.65] 7.65*[1.32] 1.66 [1.50] 5.59*[1.05] 0.23 [2.55] 0.88[1.05]
  60+ 36.71*[1.04] 27.87*[2.02] 15.75*[1.25] 18.00*[1.00] 13.35*[1.14] 11.33*[0.79] 5.03 [1.94] 1.60[0.80]
40 -49 50 -59 11.49*[1.46] 8.51*[2.84] 2.01 [1.77] 3.09 [1.41] 2.14[1.60] 3.68*[1.12] −2.08 [2.72] 0.71[1.12]
  60+ 33.74*[1.16] 23.98*[2.25] 12.62*[1.40] 13.44*[1.12] 13.84*[1.27] 9.43*[0.89] 2.71[2.16] 1.43[0.89]
50 -59 60+ 22.25*[1.34] 15.47*[2.59] 10.61*[1.61] 10.35*1.29] 11.70*[1.46] 5.74*[1.02] 4.79[2.49] 0.72[1.02]
Education PF (SD) RP (SD) BP (SD) GH (SD) SF (SD) VT (SD) RE (SD) MH (SD)
None 70.5 (28.8) 63.6 (44.6) 64.1 (25.9) 62.3 (21.6) 81.8 (24.8) 64.6 (16.7) 76.8 (39.8) 73.4 (14.8)
Primary 85.6 (21.0) 76.1 (39.1) 68.0 (25.0) 69.1 (20.2) 85.2 (22.1) 68.5 (16.1) 78.7 (38.8) 74.1 (15.8)
Junior High School 87.5 (18.8) 80.7 (35.9) 74.3 (22.5) 73.1 (18.7) 89.0 (18.9) 71.5 (14.2) 82.8 (35.4) 78.0 (14.1)
Secondary+ 91.3 (16.6) 86.4 (31.3) 78.3 (22.4) 76.9 (17.6) 90.3 (18.1) 74.0 (14.4) 86.3 (31.9) 80.5 (16.7)
F-ratio 104.02 F[3, 2810]* 38.93 F[3, 2810]* 43.09 F[3, 2806]* 62.23 F[3, 2810] 21.99 F[3, 2810] 44.56 F[3, 2810] 9.15 F[3, 2808] 30.67 F[3, 2810]
Kruskal Wallis χ2 224.0* (3) 98.15*(3) 95.10*(3) 153.87*(3) 54.98*(3) 104.47*(3) 24.24*(3) 87.67*(3)
Multiple Comparisons method test of mean differences (MD) and standard errors (SE) between educational levels in each health sub-scale
None Primary −17.92*[1.61] −13.62*[2.64] −5.48*[1.63] −7.78*[1.34] −6.34*[1.48] − 5.46*[1.05] − 2.23 [2.47] −0.52[1.00]
  JHS −21.44*[1.20] −17.66*[1.98] 11.19*[1.22] −12.28*[1.00] −10.69*[1.11] −8.79*[0.78] −7.49*[1.85] −.4.89*[0.75]
  Sec + −25.38*[1.30] −23.97*[2.13] −15.60*[1.32] −16.32*[1.08] − 11.86*[1.20] −11.16*[0.84] − 10.09*[1.99] − 7.34*[0.81]
Primary JHS/ −3.52 [1.47] −4.04 [2.41] −5.70*[1.49] − 4.71*[1.22] − 4.35*[1.36] − 3.32*[0.96] −5.26[2.25] − 4.38*[0.92]
  Sec + −7.46*[1.54] −10.35*[2.54] − 10.11*[1.57] − 8.74*[1.29] − 5.52*[1.43] − 5.69*[1.01] −7.87*[2.37] − 6.82*[0.96]
JHS Sec + −3.94*[1.12] −6.31*[1.84] −4.41*[1.13] − 4.03*[0.93] −1.17 [1.03] 2.37*[0.73] −2.60 [1.72] − 2.44*[0.70]
Wealth status PF (SD) RP (SD) BP (SD) GH (SD) SF (SD) VT (SD) RE (SD) MH (SD)
Poorest 81.7 (24.2) 75.0 (39.4) 70.4 (24.7) 67.1 (21.0) 84.7 (22.6) 67.6 (16.2) 77.3 (39.3) 73.4 (15.2)
Poorer 86.2 (20.4) 78.3 (37.3) 71.1 (23.7) 70.3 (19.9) 87.7 (19.3) 69.1 (15.2) 81.2 (36.3) 75.4 (14.9)
Middle 86.5 (20.7) 79.2 (37.3) 73.4 (23.9) 73.0 (19.0) 87.9 (20.1) 71.4 (13.8) 81.6 (36.6) 77.4 (14.8)
Richer 86.2 (21.8) 79.4 (37.7) 73.3 (23.8) 73.4 (18.9) 89.1 (19.8) 72.9 (14.7) 84.1 (34.8) 79.8 (14.2)
Richest 85.3 (21.8) 79.9 (37.4) 76.7 (23.0) 75.6 (18.8) 89.1 (19.7) 72.6 (15.4) 86.6 (31.5) 81.0 (14.3)
F ratio F(4, 2809) = 4.63* F[4, 2809] = 1.47 F[4, 2807] = 5.48* F[4, 2809] = 15.23* F[4, 2809] = 4.31* F[4, 2809] = 12.64* F[3, 2808] =4.83* F[3, 2810] =24.18*
Multiple Comparisons test of mean differences (MD) and standard errors (SE) between each pair of SES in each health sub-scale
Poorest Poorer −4.47*[1.28] N/A −0.69 [1.41] −3.26*[1.15] −2.96 [1.20] −1.41 [0.89] − 3.80 [2.11] − 2.04 [0.86]
  Middle −4.82*[1.29]   −2.93 [1.42] −5.94*[1.16] −3.24 [1.21] −3.75*[0.90] − 4.26 [2.14] − 3.97*[0.87]
  Richer −4.45*[1.30]   −2.82 [2.43] −6.37*[1.17] −4.42*[1.21] −5.22*[0.90] −6.75* [2.15] − 6.44*[0.88]
  Richest −3.59 [1.35]   −6.25*[1.49] −8.59*[1.22] −4.44* [1.27] − 4.94*[0.94] −9.19* [2.24] − 7.61*[0.91]
Poorer Middle −0.35 [1.25]   −2.25 [1.38] −2.69 [1.13] −0.28 [1.17] − 2.35 [0.87] − 0.46 [2.07] −1.92 [0.85]
  Richer 0.02 [1.26]   − 2.13 [1.38] −3.11* [1.13] −1.46 [1.18] −3.81*[0.87] − 2.95 [2.08] −4.40*[0.85]
  Richest 0.88 [1.32]   −5.56* [1.44] −5.34*[1.18] −1.48 [1.23 −3.54* [0.91] − 5.39 [2.17] −5.56*[0.89]
Middle Richer 0.37 [1.27]   0.12 [1.40] −0.42 [1.22] −1.18 [1.19] −1.47 [0.88] −2.49 [2.10] −2.47* [0.86]
  Richest 1.23 [1.33]   −3.32 [1.47] −2.65 [1.19] −1.20 [1.24] −1.19 [0.92] −4.93 [2.20] −3.64*[0.90]
Richer Richest 0.86 [1.34]   −3.43 [1.47] −2.23 [1.20] −0.02 [1.25] 0.28 [0.93] −2.44 [2.21] −1.17 [0.91]
  1. Note: Testing for significant mean differences between individual pairs of group means. SD Standard deviation, N/A Not applicable; *p < 0.05
  2. PF Physical Functioning, RP Role Physical, BP Bodily Pain, GH General Health, SF Social Functioning, RE Role Emotional, MH Mental Health