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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of the OFS and all the study measures

From: Development and validation of the openness to the future scale: a prospective protective factor

  Clinical Population Mean (SD) General Population Mean (SD) t p Cohen’s d [95% CI]
OFS 32.29 (7.93) 39.02 (4.95) 15.85 <.001 −1.11 [− 1.23, −.99]
BHS 7.62 (5.91) 3.54 (3.22) −9.64 <.001 .96 [.83, 1.08]
PSWQ 60.31 (12.11) 50.54 (13) −7.86 <.001 .77 [.65, .89]
ODSIS 7.89 (5.37) 3.73 (4.13) −8.32 <.001 .91 [.79, 1.03]
OASIS 9.66 (4.98) 5.02 (4.07) −13.6 <.001 1.06 [.93, 1.18]
RSES 1.42 (0.93) 2.2 (0.72) 9.04 <.001 −.98 [−1.11, −.86]
GSES 27.07 (8.5) 33.17 (6.55) 9.88 <.001 −.84 [−.96, −.72]
LOT-R 16.02 (4.11) 20.65 (4.5) 7.05 <.001 −1.06 [−1.18, −.93]
PANAS-P 25.81 (8.82) 34.23 (7.24) 13.99 <.001 −1.08 [− 1.21, −.96]
PANAS-N 26.62 (8.61) 19.37 (6.85) −12.41 <.001 .97 [.85, 1.10]
SPT-POS 41.79 (10.65) 50.18 (9.21) 9.7 <.001 −.86 [−.99, −.74]
SPT-NEG 77.53 (27.4) 67.53 (21.88) −4.57 <.001 .42 [.30, .54]
BP-SA 5.18 (1.62) 5.8 (1.43) 4.41 <.001 −.41 [−.53, −.30]
BP-PR 4.19 (1.32) 4.87 (1.01) 5.65 <.001 −.61 [−.73, −.49]
BP-EM 3.61 (1.08) 4.34 (.87) 7.35 <.001 −.77 [−.89, −.65]
BP-A 3.67 (1.08) 4.4 (.94) 7.85 <.001 −.74 [−.86, −.62]
BP-PG 4.35 (1.28) 5.04 (.8) 5.96 <.001 .70 [−.82, −.59]
BP-PL 3.65 (1.32) 4.73 (.92) 9.08 <.001 −1.01 [−1.14, −.89]
  1. Applying a Bonferroni correction p = .002 is needed to achieve a significant result. Accordingly, all t-tests were statistically significant. OFS Openness to the Future Scale; BHS Beck Hopelessness Scale. Score 0 to 3 (none or minimal); 4 to 8 (mild), PSWQ Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Total score ranges from 16 to 80; ODSIS Overall Depression Severity and Impairment Scale. Total score ranges from 0 to 20. Higher scores are indicative of greater depression-related severity and impairment, OASIS Overall Anxiety Severity and Impairment Scale. Total score ranges from 0 to 20. Higher scores are indicative of greater anxiety-related severity and impairment; RSES Rosenberg self-esteem scale. Item score ranges from 0 to 4. Higher scores indicate higher self-esteem; GSES General self-efficacy total scale. Total score ranges from 12 to 60. Higher scores indicate higher self-efficacy; LOT-R Life Orientation Test. Total score ranges from 0 to 32. Higher scores indicate higher dispositional optimism; PANAS-PA and PANAS-NA, positive and negative affect scale. Scores can range from 10 to 50 in both subscales. Higher scores representing higher levels of positive and negative affect; SPT-POS and SPT-NEG positive and negative future expectations. SPT-POS ranges from 10 to 70 and SPT-NEG from 20 to 140. Higher scores representing higher levels of positive and negative expectancies; BP-A Ryff Scales of Psychological Well Being, autonomy subscale (range 6–36); BP-EM environmental mastery (range 5–30), BP-PG personal growth (range 4–24), BP-PR positive relations with others (range 5–30), BP-PL purpose in life (range 5–30), BP-SA self-acceptance (range 4–24). For each subscale, a high score indicates that the respondent has a mastery of that area in his or her life