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Table 4 Adjusted relationship of pain (mean NRS) and functional disability (ODI) with HRQoL paramenters (EQ-utility, EQ-VAS, SF-PCS, SF-MCS) during follow-up

From: Benefits in pain perception, ability function and health-related quality of life in patients with failed back surgery syndrome undergoing spinal cord stimulation in a clinical practice setting

  EQ-Utility EQ-VAS SF-PCS SF-MCS
Independent variables Regr. Coef. 95% CI P Regr. Coef. 95% CI P Regr. Coef. 95% CI P Regr. Coef. 95% CI P
Mean NRS −0.018 −0.027,-0.009 < 0.001 −3.187 −4.095,-1.985 < 0.001 −0.745 −1.108,-0.382 < 0.001 −1.371 −1.938,-0.805 < 0.001
ODI −0.009 −0.010,-0.008 < 0.001 − 0.253 − 0.402,-0.112 0.001 − 0.228 −0.275,-0.181 < 0.001 − 0.083 −0.159,-0.007 0.031
Baseline HRQoL score 0.217 0.143,0.291 < 0.001 0.121 0.016,0.246 0.038 0.467 0.298,0.636 < 0.001 0.453 0.306,0.600 < 0.001
Age (years) 0.001 −0.002,0.002 0.930 −0.066 − 0.226,0.097 0.432 − 0.012 −0.092,0.067 0.761 −0.018 − 0.135,0.099 0.767
Sex
 Female – reference
 Male 0.001 −0.044,0.045 0.974 −3.341 −8.314,0.941 0.159 −0.652 −2.727,1.424 0.538 −1.088 −4.045,1.869 0.471
Education
 None - reference
 Lower secondary school −0.014 −0.079,0.050 0.661 1.554 −5.639,6.915 0.642 −1.475 −4.466,1.516 0.334 −0.085 −4.395,4.224 0.969
 Upper secondary school/university −0.039 −0.087,0.010 0.124 −1.456 −6.014,3.982 0.558 0.951 −1.291,3.193 0.406 −0.175 −3.343,2.993 0.914
Previous surgery
 None or 1 - reference
 More than 1 0.004 −0.044,0.052 0.861 −1.254 −6.014,3.982 0.628 0.621 −1.291,3.193 0.587 −2.326 −5.579,0.926 0.161
 Visit (time) 0 .003 −0.009,0.014 0.642 1.945 0.440,3.415 0.011 −0.339 −0.714,0.097 0.077 −0.331 − 0.962,0.300 0.303
 Intercept 1.039 0.904,1.174 < 0.001 80.165 65.235,93.185 < 0.001 35.095 27.878,42.313 < 0.001 35.753 26.383,45.123 < 0.001
 Random intercept (SD) 0.061 0.042,0.088 < 0.0001 3.714 1.485,9.284 0.117 3.713 2.982,4.624 < 0.0001 4.995 3.887,6.418 < 0.0001
 Random residuals (SD) 0.140 0.129,0.153 15.116 13.717,16.657 4.706 4.338,5.106 7.966 7.344,8.641
  1. The column on the left lists the independent variables introduced in the regression models, and the intercept and the random component of the model. The other columns show the regression coefficients and the standard deviations of the random intercept and random residuals, the 95% confidence intervals and the p values estimated for each independent variable analysed with the dependent variables EQ-utility index, EQ-VAS, SF-PCS and SF-MCS. Positive regression coefficients indicate a direct association, and negative regression coefficients indicate an inverse association between the dependent variables and the independent variables. Confidence intervals and p values indicate the level of significance of the regression coefficients