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Table 3 Comparison of HRQoL between patients and general population

From: Benefits in pain perception, ability function and health-related quality of life in patients with failed back surgery syndrome undergoing spinal cord stimulation in a clinical practice setting

  Baseline 6 months f-up 12 months f-up 18 months f-up 24 months f-up
EQ-VAS Regr. coef. 95% CI P Regr. coef. 95% CI P Regr. coef. 95% CI P Regr. coef. 95% CI P Regr. coef. 95% CI P
Age (years) −0.337 − 0.361,-0.313 < 0.0001 − 0.336 − 0.361,-0.312 < 0.0001 − 0.337 − 0.361,-0.312 < 0.0001 − 0.337 − 0.362,-0.313 < 0.0001 − 0.337 − 0.361,-0.312 < 0.0001
Sex: Male (reference)
 Female −1.714 −2.528,-0.901 < 0.0001 − 1.699 − 2.513,-0.885 < 0.0001 − 1.664 − 2.478,-0.849 < 0.0001 − 1.620 −2.436,-0.805 < 0.0001 −1.639 − 2.454,-0.825 < 0.0001
Subjects: General population (ref.)
 Patients −37.392 −41.356,-33.428 < 0.0001 −18.337 −22.266,-14.408 < 0.0001 −20.694 − 24.626,-16.762 < 0.0001 − 17.054 − 21.017,-13.090 < 0.0001 − 17.568 −21.528,-13.608 < 0.0001
Education: none (reference)
 Primary/Middle school 3.693 −2.621,10.007 0.252 4.358 −1.879,10.595 0.171 2.026 −4.215,8.267 0.525 2.774 −3.478,9.025 0.384 4.411 −1.835,10.657 0.166
 Upper school/University 7.788 1.495,14.080 0.015 8.407 2.191,14.623 0.008 6.111 −0.109,12.332 0.054 6.792 0.561,13.023 0.033 8.440 2.215,14.665 0.008
Intercept 91.777 85.257,98.297 < 0.0001 91.080 84.635,97.525 < 0.0001 93.354 86.904,99.803 < 0.0001 92.620 86.159,99.081 < 0.0001 90.985 84.529,97.440 < 0.0001
EQ-Utility Regr. coef. 95% CI P Regr. coef. 95% CI P Regr. coef. 95% CI P Regr. coef. 95% CI P Regr. coef. 95% CI P
Age (years) −0.003 −0.003,−0.003 < 0.0001 − 0.003 − 0.003,− 0.003 < 0.0001 −0.003 − 0.003,− 0.003 < 0.0001 −0.003 -0.003,-0.003 < 0.0001 -0.003 -0.003,-0.003 < 0.0001
Sex: Male (reference)
 Female −0.052 − 0.060,-0.044 < 0.0001 − 0.052 − 0.060,-0.044 < 0.0001 − 0.052 −0.060,-0.043 < 0.0001 − 0.051 − 0.060-0.043 < 0.0001 − 0.052 −0.060-0.044 < 0.0001
Subjects: general population (ref.)
 Patients −0.506 −0.545,-0.467 < 0.0001 − 0.306 − 0.345,-0.267 < 0.0001 − 0.294 −0.333,-0.254 < 0.0001 − 0.255 − 0.294,-0.216 < 0.0001 − 0.268 −0.307,-0.229 < 0.0001
Education: none (reference)
 Primary/Middle school 0.005 −0.059,0.069 0.879 −0.055 −0.119,0.009 0.093 −0.089 − 0.154,-0.024 0.007 − 0.070 −0.134,-0.005 0.034 −0.060 − 0.125,0.004 0.065
 Upper school/University 0.035 −0.029,0.098 0.284 −0.028 −0.092,0.037 0.401 −0.062 − 0.127,0.003 0.062 − 0.042 − 0.106,0.022 0.200 −0.033 − 0.097,0.031 0.312
Intercept 1.179 1.113,1.245 < 0.0001 1.241 1.174,1.308 < 0.0001 1.275 1.207,1.342 < 0.0001 1.253 1.186,1.320 < 0.0001 1.246 1.179,1.312 < 0.0001
  1. Note: the column on the left lists the independent variables introduced in the regression models for the VAS and for the EQ-Utility index. The other columns show the regression coefficients, the 95% confidence intervals and the p values estimated for each independent variable analysed with the dependent variables EQ-VAS or EQ-utility index. Positive regression coefficients indicate a direct association and negative regression coefficients indicate an inverse association between the dependent variables and the independent variables. 95% Confidence intervals and p values indicate the level of significance of the regression coefficients