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Table 5 Impact of health status and diagnosis group on QOL. Linear regression models of the four WHOQOL-BREF domains

From: Multicentre cross-sectional clinical evaluation study about quality of life in adults with disorders/differences of sex development (DSD) compared to country specific reference populations (dsd-LIFE)

   Physical health (n = 960) Psychological (n = 963) Social relationships (n = 962) Environment (n = 961)
Variable Categories ß 95% CI p-value p R2 (%) ß 95% CI p-value p R2 (%) ß 95% CI p-value p R2 (%) ß 95% CI p-value p R2 (%)
Age −0.1 −0.2, −0.0 0.006 5 −0.0 −0.1, 0.1 0.875 2 −0.2 −0.3, −0.1 0.006 5 0.0 −0.0, 0.1 0.360 1
Feeling about households income     14     14     10     33
 Living comfortable on present income 0.0     0.0     0.0     0.0    
 Coping with present income −3.4 −5.3, − 1.5 < 0.001   −3.0 −5.2, − 0.9 0.006   −3.4 −6.0, − 0.8 0.009   −4.5 −6.2, −2.8 < 0.001  
 (Very) difficult to live on present income −9.0 − 11.8, −6.2 < 0.001   −6.9 − 10.0, − 3.8 < 0.001   − 5.2 −9.0, − 1.5 0.006   −12.2 −14.6, −9.7 < 0.001  
Relationship status     1     2     15     0
 Being single 0.0     0.0     0.0     0.0    
 Having a partner 0.3 −2.0, 2.5 0.806   2.9 0.4, 5.4 0.025   9.6 6.5, 12.6 < 0.001   −0.5 −2.5, 1.5 0.637  
 Living with parents − 0.5 −3.1, 2.2 0.727   1.2 −1.8, 4.2 0.425   3.2 −0.4, 6.7 0.081   −0.2 −2.5, 2.2 0.887  
 Other −1.6 −6.6, 3.5 0.544   1.1 −4.5, 6.7 0.697   −0.9 −7.6, 5.9 0.796   −2.0 −6.5, 2.4 0.366  
Health status     77     81     62     63
 Very bad 0.0     0.0     0.0     0.0    
 Bad 16.0 7.9, 24.2 < 0.001   7.9 −1.3, 17.0 0.092   5.8 −5.3, 16.7 0.305   14.1 6.9, 21.4 < 0.001  
 Fair 28.4 20.7, 26.1 < 0.001   15.4 6.8, 24.0 < 0.001   11.6 1.3, 22.0 0.027   17.9 11.1, 24.6 < 0.001  
 Good 41.7 34.0, 49.4 < 0.001   25.6 17.0, 34.2 < 0.001   21.9 11.6, 32.2 < 0.001   26.0 19.2, 32.8 < 0.001  
 Very good 52.3 44.3, 60.2 < 0.001   38.3 29.4, 47.2 < 0.001   31.8 21.1, 42.5 < 0.001   34.1 27.1, 41.1 < 0.001  
Diagnosis     3     1     7     2
 Turner 0.0     0.0     0.0     0.0    
 Klinefelter −0.7 −3.3; 1.9 0.593   1.8 −1.1, 4.7 0.221   −4.4 −7.9, −1-0 0.012   −1.8 −4.1, 0.5 0.124  
 CAH −3.2 −5.6; −0.7 0.012   1.7 −1.0, 4.5 0.219   −1.6 −4.9, 1.8 0.360   0.4 −1.8, 2.6 0.698  
 XY-DSD female 1.1 −1.5; 3.7 0.398   −0.7 −3.6, 2.2 0.630   −4.8 −8.3, −1.4 0.006   0.2 −2.1, 2.4 0.893  
 XY-DSD male 3.2 −0.2; 6.6 0.066   0.9 −2.9, 4.7 0.647   −7.9 −12.5, −3.4 < 0.001   −0.6 − 3.6, 2.4 0.678  
Model fit R2 (%) 45 R2 (%) 28 R2 (%) 23 R2 (%) 33