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Table 3 GRM for assessing longitudinal invariance

From: Longitudinal measurement invariance and explanatory IRT models for adolescents’ oral health-related quality of life

  Median differences between baseline and follow up(credible intervals)
a b1 b2 b3a
CPQ11‑14 RSF:8
 1. Mouth sores ‑0.16 (‑0.40,0.08) ‑1.65 (‑5.62,0.29) ‑0.58 (‑1.48,0.16) 2.75 (‑2.35,12.67)
 2. Bad breath 0.01 (‑0.25,0.29) ‑0.74 (‑3.57,2.46) ‑0.15 (‑0.96,0.74) ‑0.05 (‑4.18,3.31)
 3.Trouble sleeping 0.35 (‑0.02,0.70) 0.08 (‑0.24,0.42) ‑0.05 (‑0.85,0.63) ‑0.57 (‑2.23,0.77)
 4. Difficult to say any words 0.01 (‑0.37,0.39) ‑0.34 (‑0.69,0.01) ‑0.41 (‑1.27,0.36) ‑1.34 (‑3.29,0.14)
 5. Concerned with other people think ‑0.05 (‑0.38,0.30) ‑0.17 (‑0.45,0.12) ‑0.06 (‑0.40,0.28) ‑0.15 (‑0.99,0.66)
 6. Upset 0.07 (‑0.33,0.47) 0.20 (‑0.04,0.44) 0.10 (‑0.31,0.51) ‑0.17 (‑1.18,0.82)
 7. Argued with other children or your family 0.05 (‑0.35,0.44) 0.48 (0.20,0.78) 0.49 (‑0.02,1.04) 1.04 (‑0.38,2.77)
 8. Teased/ called names by other children 0.15 (‑0.20,0.52) 0.88 (0.52,1.29) 0.76 (0.05,1.57) 0.89 (‑0.47,2.42)
CPQ11‑14 ISF:8
 1. Bad breath 0.01 (‑0.25,0.29) ‑0.74 (‑3.57,2.46) ‑0.15 (‑0.96,0.74) ‑0.05 (‑4.18,3.31)
 2. Food caught between/ in teeth ‑0.1 (‑0.39,0.18) ‑1.87 (‑5.53,1.08) ‑1.13 (‑2.93,0.34) ‑0.75 (‑1.88,0.36)
 3. Difficult to bite or chew food like apples, corn on the cob or steak 0.00 (‑0.36,0.36) ‑0.21 (‑0.48,0.06) ‑0.46 (‑1.08,0.11) ‑0.63 (‑1.91,0.50)
 4. Difficult to drink or eat hot or cold food ‑0.18 (‑0.50,0.13) ‑0.48 (‑0.83,‑0.13) 0.11 (‑0.61,0.89) 1.01 (‑0.58,2.85)
 5. Irritable/ frustrated ‑0.16 (‑0.53,0.18) 0.27 (‑0.01,0.56) 0.53 (0.08,1.06) 0.72 (‑0.32,1.91)
 6. Upset 0.07 (‑0.33,0.47) 0.20 (‑0.04,0.44) 0.10 (‑0.31,0.51) ‑0.17 (‑1.18,0.82)
 7. Avoided smiling/ laughing when around other children 0.39 (‑0.07,0.85) ‑0.23 (‑0.51,0.02) ‑0.26 (‑0.82,0.22) ‑0.3 (‑1.37,0.69)
 8. Asked questions about your teeth, lips, jaws or mouth by others 0.07 (‑0.27,0.41) ‑0.09 (‑0.38,0.21) ‑0.43 (‑1.05,0.16) ‑0.85 (‑2.44,0.57)
  1. aThe options “Often” = 3 and “Every day/ almost every day” = 4 were combined
  2. Data in boldface: 95% credible interval excluded 0, considered as statistically significant at 0.05 level of significance