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Table 1 The frequency distribution of background variables

From: Longitudinal measurement invariance and explanatory IRT models for adolescents’ oral health-related quality of life

Factors Baseline (n = 649) Followed- up (n = 415)
   n % n %
Gendera Boys 319 49.2
Girls 330 50.8
Father’s education levela College graduate or above 81 12.5
Senior secondary school (S4‑7) 313 48.2
Junior Secondary school (S1‑3) 167 25.7
Mother’s education levela Below Secondary school 88 13.6
College graduate or above 110 16.9
Senior secondary school (S4‑7) 267 41.1
Junior Secondary school (S1‑3) 184 28.4
Below Secondary school 88 13.6
Student Dental Care Service/ Dental insurancea Yes 636 98.0
No 13 2.0
Monthly family income >$40,000 96 14.8 81 19.5
$30,000‑$40,000 65 10.0 42 10.1
$20,000‑$30,000 101 15.6 69 16.6
$10,000‑$20,000 226 34.8 165 39.8
<$10,000 161 24.8 58 14.0
Snacking frequency between meals 3 times or more 54 8.3 38 9.2
Twice 123 19.0 81 19.5
Once 334 51.4 202 48.7
None 138 21.3 94 22.7
Daily brushing frequency Twice or more 467 72.0 303 73.0
Less than twice 182 28.0 112 27.0
Both parents employed Yes 417 64.3 276 66.5
No 232 35.7 139 33.5
Maximum CPI Healthy gum/ No bleeding or calculus 89 13.7 44 10.6
Bleeding on probing 139 21.4 46 11.1
Calculus deposits 421 64.9 325 78.3
DMFT 0 446 68.7 193 46.5
1 109 16.8 67 16.1
2 52 8.0 47 11.3
> 3 42 6.5 108 26.1
Mean (s.d.) 0.55 (1.01) 1.70 (2.34)
  1. aOnly collected in the baseline study