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Table 3 Estimated linear regression models for the EQ-VAS score. Individuals aged 80-plus

From: Feeling good in old age: factors explaining health-related quality of life

Variables Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Coefficients p-value Coefficients p-value Coefficients p-value
EQ-5D Dimension
 Mobility problems
  No problems     
  Slight problems −5.37 ***    −5.16 ***
  Moderate problems −8.32 ***    −8.52 ***
  Severe problems −10.32 ***    −10.3 ***
  Extreme Problems −13.61 ***    −14.04 ***
 Self-care problems
  No problems     
  Slight problems −2.51 *    −2.11  
  Moderate problems −5.10 ***    −5.07 ***
  Severe problems −6.81 ***    −6.31 ***
  Extreme Problems −6.89 ***    −6.22 ***
 Usual activity problems
  No problems     
  Slight problems −2.13 *    −1.44  
  Moderate problems −4.30 ***    −3.24 **
  Severe problems −5.30 ***    −3.78 **
  Extreme Problems −7.82 ***    −6.24 **
 Pain/Discomfort
  No problems     
  Slight problems −3.35 ***    −3.04 ***
  Moderate problems −6.57 ***    −5.64 ***
  Severe problems −9.27 ***    −8.36 ***
  Extreme Problems −15.08 ***    −13.71 ***
 Anxiety/Depression
  No problems     
  Slight problems −5.30 ***    −4.47 ***
  Moderate problems −6.22 ***    −4.69 ***
  Severe problems −6.52 ***    −4.16 ***
  Extreme Problems −12.42 ***    −10.71 ***
Constant 72.10 *** 83.40 *** 52.73 ***
Age    −0.23 ** 0.27 ***
Female [vs. male]    −2.40 *** 0.38  
Low education [vs. middle/high]    −3.58 *** −2.58 **
Low social class [vs. middle/high]    −2.18 ** −1.44  
Sensory impairment (0–4)    −5.18 *** −1.97 ***
Chronic conditions (0–33)    −1.32 *** −0.49 ***
Underweight or obese [vs. normal or overweight]    −2.89 *** 0.47  
Number of prescription drugs in the last 2 days    −0.67 *** 0.21  
Hospitalization in the last 12 months    −3.62 *** −2.08 **
Number of emergency visits in the last 12 months    −0.89 *** −0.25  
Sample size (N) 2264 2212 2212
R-squared 0.40 0.25 0.42
  1. Source: ESCA 2011–2016
  2. *** p < 0.01; ** p < 0.05; * p < 0.10. Linear regression models were used to estimate the EQ-VAS scores. EQ-VAS: EuroQol Visual Analogue Scale. The reference categories appear in brackets