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Table 2 Individual characteristics according to the quartiles of the EQ-VAS score. Individuals aged 80-plus

From: Feeling good in old age: factors explaining health-related quality of life

  N Total I1 I2 I3 I4
EQ VAS – Intervalsa 2264   ≤ 40 41–55 56–70 >  70
Age in years, mean (SD) 2264 85.9 (4.3) 86.0 (4.6) 85.4 (4.3) 84.6 (3.9) 84.5 (4.4)
Age groups 2264      
 80–84   52.0 42.8 48.8 57.5 59.9
 85–89   31.6 34.4 34.8 30.0 26.4
 90+   16.4 22.8 16.4 12.5 13.7
Sex 2264      
 Men   35.6 29.7 30.7 38.9 44.7
 Women   64.4 70.3 69.3 61.1 55.3
Level of education 2260      
 Low   86.5 92.4 88.6 84.4 79.4
 Middle or high   13.5 7.3 11.4 15.6 20.6
Social class 2221      
 Low   75.5 80.4 77.3 75.4 66.6
 Middle or high   24.5 19.6 22.7 24.6 33.4
Household size 2264      
 Living alone   27.8 20.5 31.4 32.2 26.9
 More than one member   72.2 79.5 68.6 67.9 73.1
Level of sensory loss 2264      
 0   67.6 48.3 65.2 77.1 82.9
 1   19.7 24.6 23.8 16.2 13.2
 2   8.6 17.6 6.4 5.6 3.5
 3   2.7 6.5 2.8 0.6 0.4
 4   1.4 3.0 1.8 0.5 0.0
Level of functional loss 2264      
 0   38.4 10.6 30.1 52.1 65.8
 1   17.1 11.1 17.5 22.4 17.0
 2   14.0 15.1 19.5 12.9 7.5
 3   30.5 63.2 32.9 12.6 9.7
Number of chronic diseases, mean (SD) 2264 7.2 (4.0) 9.5 (4.0) 7.7 (3.6) 6.3 (3.5) 4.9 (3.2)
Falls in the previous 12 months 2264      
 0   79.0 71.1 77.3 83.2 85.2
  > =1   21.0 28.9 22.7 16.8 14.8
Needs help for ADL 2264      
 Yes   51.5 87.2 60.3 32.7 20.6
 No   48.5 12.8 39.7 67.3 79.4
Usual physical activity 1552      
 Highly active   0.2 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.6
 Moderately active   0.7 0.3 0.7 0.8 1.1
 Slightly active   34.7 14.1 24.5 42.0 52.9
 Minimally active   8.1 5.2 8.9 9.4 7.8
 Sedentary   56.3 80.3 65.9 47.5 37.7
Number of prescription drugs in the last 2 days, mean (SD) 2264 4.1 (2.6) 5.3 (2.8) 4.5 (2.3) 3.6 (2.3) 2.9 (2.2)
Risk Factors
 Body mass index 2264      
  Normal or overweight   83.1 77.0 77.6 87.8 91.1
  Underweight or obesity   16.9 33.0 32.4 12.2 8.9
 Smoking 1697      
  Current smoker   2.8 3.2 2.4 2.3 3.4
  Former smoker   16.6 12.2 16.7 23.1 19.8
  Never smoked   78.6 84.5 80.9 74.5 76.8
 Drinking 1697      
  Non-drinker   52.7 65.5 57.0 50.8 39.9
  Moderate drinker   46.6 34.5 42.3 48.5 58.8
  At-risk drinker   0.7 0.0 0.7 0.8 1.3
Hospitalization in the last 12 months 2262      
 Yes   17.4 28.8 18.8 10.7 10.4
 No   82.6 71.2 81.2 89.3 89.6
Number of emergency visits in the last 12 months, mean (SD) 2257 0.7 (1.6) 1.3 (2.5) 0.7 (1.3) 0.5 (0.9) 0.4 (0.8)
  1. Source: ESCA 2011–2016
  2. Numbers are percentages (%) unless otherwise stated. SD: standard deviation. EQ-VAS: EuroQol Visual Analogue Scale. I1, I2, I3 and I4 represent the intervals delimited by the EQ-VAS quartiles
  3. aIndividuals with EQ-VAS score coinciding with a quartile value are assigned to the lower interval