Skip to main content

Table 3 Parent-Reported Quality of Life Scores of Patients With CDH Stratified by Characteristics at Birth, CDH Severity, and Major Lifetime Comorbid Conditions

From: Health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a cross-sectional study

Characteristic Patients (n) Mean Overall Score (SD) P Value* Mean Physical Score (SD) P Value* Mean Psychosocial Score (SD) P Value*
Characteristics at birth
Sex    0.38   0.72   0.35
 Male 29 82.7 (15.4)   82.9 (18.3)   81.7 (16.0)  
 Female 16 78.5 (13.5)   81.0 (14.9)   77.1 (14.5)  
Probability of survival score    0.08   0.06   0.08
 Low or intermediate 14 75.5 (18.1)   75.0 (20.1)   74.0 (18.4)  
 High 31 83.7 (12.5)   85.4 (14.7)   82.8 (13.3)  
CDH type    0.81   0.94   0.62
 Liver down 32 80.8 (13.4)   82.1 (15.7)   79.3 (14.3)  
 Liver up 13 82.1 (18.3)   82.5 (20.7)   81.9 (18.5)  
BPD    0.003   0.01   0.007
 Yes 15 72.2 (19.2)   73.3 (20.3)   71.5 (20.0)  
 No 30 85.7 (9.5)   86.7 (13.4)   84.4 (10.5)  
Initial hospitalization, days    0.01   0.15   0.008
  ≤ 30 24 86.9 (8.3)   86.1 (14.1)   86.4 (8.6)  
 31–60 11 77.4 (10.3)   81.4 (16.3)   75.0 (10.1)  
  ≥ 61 10 71.3 (23.7)   73.7 (22.3)   70.4 (24.9)  
Mechanical ventilation, days    0.08   0.07   0.12
  ≤ 7 22 86.6 (8.8)   88.5 (12.3)   85.4 (9.4)  
 8–21 13 78.4 (13.0)   78.7 (15.6)   76.8 (14.1)  
  ≥ 22 9 76.6 (20.0)   75.2 (23.3)   77.1 (19.6)  
Postdischarge events
 Hospitalizations, n    0.08   0.03   0.13
  0 12 86.8 (10.0)   88.3 (9.5)   85.8 (12.1)  
  1–2 17 83.1 (10.2)   86.3 (15.1)   81.5 (10.0)  
   ≥ 3 16 74.9 (19.6)   73.3 (20.2)   74.3 (20.5)  
Characteristics at testing
 Age    0.03   0.045   0.03
   < 24 months 8 83.8 (9.2)   83.9 (7.8)   83.7 (11.3)  
  2–4 years 7 93.2 (5.8)   97.3 (4.9)   90.7 (7.3)  
  5–12 years 18 74.5 (17.2)   76.4 (19.0)   72.5 (18.2)  
   ≥ 13 years 12 82.4 (13.1)   81.0 (18.5)   82.8 (12.2)  
 Digestive issues    0.06   0.046   0.07
  Yes 23 77.2 (17.2)   77.3 (19.3)   76.0 (17.9)  
  No 22 85.4 (10.5)   87.3 (12.7)   84.3 (11.3)  
 Respiratory issues    0.40   0.13   0.62
  Yes 29 79.8 (15.7)   79.3 (17.8)   79.2 (16.3)  
  No 16 83.7 (13.0)   87.4 (14.7)   81.6 (14.1)  
 Orthopedic issues    0.01   0.007   0.04
  Yes 6 67.0 (21.9)   65.1 (23.4)   68.1 (22.1)  
  No 39 83.4 (12.3)   84.8 (14.5)   81.9 (13.6)  
 Neurologic issues    < 0.001   0.05   < 0.001
  Yesa 7 64.7 (22.6)   70.8 (24.3)   60.4 (21.1)  
  No 38 84.2 (10.7)   84.3 (14.8)   83.7 (11.1)  
  1. BPD Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, CDH Congenital diaphragmatic hernia, SD Standard deviation. All scores are expressed as mean (SD)
  2. aAll 7 patients with CDH and neurologic issues had severe cognitive impairment; 1 patient also had cerebral palsy
  3. *The given health-related quality of life score was compared across groups using analysis of variance (ANOVA)