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Table 2 Parent- and Child-Reported PedsQL Scores of Patients With CDH and Control Participantsa

From: Health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with congenital diaphragmatic hernia: a cross-sectional study

  Participants With CDH Healthy Control Participants Estimated Difference (CDH–Control)b
Assessment n Mean Score (SD) n Mean Score (SD) Estimate 95% CI P Value
Parent report
 Overall score 45 81.2 (14.8) 90 89.2 (6.4) −8.2 −11.7 to − 4.7 < 0.001
 Physical health summary 45 82.2 (17.0) 90 90.5 (8.4) −8.3 −12.5 to −4.1 < 0.001
 Psychosocial health summary 45 80.1 (15.4) 90 88.5 (6.9) −8.5 −12.2 to −4.7 < 0.001
  Emotional 45 75.8 (15.2) 90 83.1 (11.0) −8.0 −12.5 to −3.5 < 0.001
  Social 45 85.6 (19.5) 90 93.2 (8.8) −7.3 −11.9 to −2.8 0.002
  School 37 79.3 (21.2) 74 91.0 (9.3) −11.5 −17.2 to −5.8 < 0.001
 Cognitivec 8 90.6 (11.1) 16 92.8 (9.9) −1.8 −10.8 to 7.2 0.69
Child report
 Overall score 28 75.0 (13.9) 60 85.4 (8.8) −10.7 −15.6 to − 5.9 < 0.001
 Physical health summary 28 74.7 (16.5) 60 84.8 (11.6) −10.7 − 16.7 to −4.7 < 0.001
 Psychosocial health summary 28 75.4 (14.6) 60 85.6 (8.9) −10.3 − 15.4 to −5.3 < 0.001
  Emotional 28 69.6 (16.6) 60 79.8 (13.5) −10.8 −17.4 to −4.2 0.002
  Social 28 82.7 (18.3) 60 89.9 (9.9) −6.9 −12.9 to − 1.0 0.02
  School 28 73.2 (19.6) 60 86.8 (10.9) −13.9 −20.4 to −7.4 < 0.001
  1. CDH Congenital diaphragmatic hernia, PedsQL Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, SD Standard deviation
  2. a Patients with CDH had a mean (SD) age of 8.2 (5.7) years and consisted of 29 males (64%) and 16 females (36%). Control participants had a mean (SD) age of 8.4 (6.1) years and consisted of 40 males (44%) and 50 females (56%)
  3. b The difference between patients with CDH and control was estimated using multiple regression with group (CDH vs. control) as the explanatory variable of interest and age group and sex included as adjustor variables
  4. cOnly reported by the parents of 1- to 24-month-old infants. For this age group, the psychosocial health summary score is calculated as the sum of the items divided by the number of items answered in the emotional, social, and cognitive functioning scales