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Table 2 Bivariate analysis between the factors and the CPQ11–14

From: The factors that influence oral health-related quality of life in 15-year-old children

   OS FL EWB SWB CPQ11–14 total score  
  N Mean (SD) Median (IQR) P Mean (SD) Median (IQR) P Mean (SD) Median (IQR) P Mean (SD) Median (IQR) P Mean (SD) Median (IQR) P
Gender
 F 186 7.35(2.87) 7.00(4) 0.168 5.03(4.02) 4.50(5) 0.202 6.38(5.70) 5.00(8) 0.000** 3.73(4.63) 2.00(5) 0.008** 22.48(14.15) 19.00(18) 0.022*
 M 178 7.70(3.05) 8.00(5) 4.49(3.81) 4.00(6) 4.48(5.35) 2.00(8) 3.14(4.72) 1.00(4) 19.81(14.03) 16.00(18)
 Total 364 7.52(2.96) 8.00(5)   4.77(3.92) 4.00(5)   5.45(5.61) 3.50(8)   3.44(4.68) 2.00(4)   21.18(14.13) 18.00(19)  
Father’s education
 Primary school graduate or below 58 7.76(3.02) 8.00(4) 0.843 5.19(4.17) 3.00(6) 0.704 6.86(6.51) 5.00(10) 0.258 4.19(5.30) 2.00(6) 0.335 24.00(15.46) 19.50(22) 0.293
 Secondary school graduate or below 239 7.48(2.85) 8.00(3) 4.76(3.96) 4.00(6) 5.26(5.51) 3.00(8) 3.33(4.45) 2.00(4) 20.82(13.92) 17.00(18)
 College graduate or above 67 7.46(3.31) 8.00(5) 4.45(3.59) 4.00(4) 4.91(4.95) 3.00(7) 3.16(4.91) 1.00(5) 19.99(13.58) 16.00(17)
Mother’s education
 Primary school graduate or below 57 8.07(3.03) 8.00(5) 0.035* 4.82(3.93) 4.00(6) 0.509 6.40(6.08) 5.00(9) 0.356 3.54(4.63) 2.00(5) 0.675 22.84(14.33) 18.00(20) 0.270
 Secondary school graduate or below 264 7.33(2.90) 7.00(4) 4.70(3.91) 4.00(6) 5.27(5.57) 3.00(8) 3.48(4.85) 2.00(4) 20.78(14.34) 17.00(19)
 College graduate or above 43 7.98(3.18) 8.00(6) 5.09(4.09) 4.00(5) 5.30(5.15) 3.00(8) 3.02(3.65) 2.00(5) 21.40(12.64) 19.00(16)
Household income
 Below HK$10,000 52 8.27(2.71) 8.00(4) 0.057 4.96(4.43) 3.00(7) 0.395 5.73(5.80) 4.00(8) 0.865 3.42(4.77) 1.00(4) 0.932 22.38(15.07) 18.00(20) 0.880
 HK$10,001-HK$20,000 149 7.20(2.92) 7.00(4) 4.38(3.63) 4.00(5) 5.72(5.70) 4.00(8) 3.36(4.15) 2.00(4) 20.65(13.35) 17.00(18)
 HK$20,001-HK$30,000 61 7.34(3.02) 7.00(5) 4.70(4.04) 4.00(5) 5.48(6.11) 3.00(10) 3.48(4.96) 1.00(5) 21.00(15.60) 18.00(20)
 HK$30,001-HK$40,000 39 8.51(2.99) 9.00(5) 5.69(3.83) 6.00(7) 5.18(5.70) 2.00(8) 3.64(5.71) 1.00(5) 23.03(15.25) 16.00(18)
 Over HK$40,001 63 7.21(3.04) 7.00(4) 5.03(4.08) 4.00(6) 4.71(4.68) 3.00(9) 3.49(4.94) 2.00(5) 20.44(13.23) 19.00(18)
Periodontal status
 CPI score = 0 27 6.63(2.75) 6.00(4) 0.095 4.26(4.48) 2.00(6) 0.247 4.85(5.97) 3.00(5) 0.533 2.11(2.74) 1.00(4) 0.285 17.85(12.28) 14.00(17) 0.209
 CPI score > 0 337 7.59(2.97) 8.00(5) 4.81(3.88) 4.00(5) 5.50(5.58) 4.00(8) 3.55(4.79) 2.00(5) 21.44(14.25) 18.00(18)
 CPI score < 2 61 6.92(2.74) 6.00(4) 0.083 4.43(4.16) 3.00(5) 0.287 4.34(5.04) 3.00(7) 0.114 2.20(3.65) 1.00(3) 0.024* 17.89(11.68) 15.00(16) 0.064
 CPI score = 2 303 7.64(2.99) 8.00(4) 4.84(3.88) 4.00(5) 5.67(5.69) 4.00(8) 3.69(4.83) 2.00(5) 21.84(14.50) 18.00(19)
Caries experience
 < SiC Index value 317 7.51(3.00) 8.00(5) 0.814 4.84(3.93) 4.00(5) 0.349 5.42(5.60) 3.00(8) 0.968 3.38(4.55) 2.00(4) 0.590 21.14(13.99) 18.00(19) 0.968
 > =SiC Index value 47 7.60(2.72) 8.00(4) 4.32(3.89) 3.00(5) 5.64(5.73) 4.00(9) 3.85(5.53) 2.00(5) 21.40(15.24) 16.00(17)
IOTN (DHC) treatment need
 No need 194 7.69(3.02) 8.00(5) 0.209 4.49(4.05) 3.00(6) 0.146 5.39(5.59) 4.00(9) 0.900 3.31(4.69) 1.00(4) 0.234 20.88(14.33) 18.00(18) 0.847
 Borderline need 78 7.06(2.84) 7.00(4) 5.19(3.94) 4.00(5) 5.56(5.87) 3.50(9) 3.99(4.95) 2.00(5) 21.81(14.71) 15.00(22)
 Definite need 92 7.55(2.94) 7.00(4) 4.99(3.62) 4.50(6) 5.48(5.47) 3.00(9) 3.25(4.41) 1.50(4) 21.27(13.33) 17.50(18)
IOTN (AC) treatment need
 No need 290 7.39(2.95) 7.00(4) 0.203 4.70(3.97) 4.00(6) 0.301 5.26(5.53) 3.00(8) 0.468 3.41(4.64) 1.00(5) 0.575 20.76(14.04) 17.00(18) 0.388
 Borderline need 50 8.06(2.96) 8.00(4) 4.80(4.00) 4.00(5) 6.00(5.91) 4.00(10) 3.74(5.17) 2.00(4) 22.60(15.42) 18.50(21)
 Definite need 24 8.00(3.09) 8.50(6) 5.54(3.20) 5.00(5) 6.54(5.95) 5.00(12) 3.17(4.26) 2.00(4) 23.25(12.65) 19.00(20)
DAI
 Normal or minor malocclusion-no treatment need or slight need 153 7.31(2.98) 7.00(5) 0.049* 4.35(3.80) 4.00(6) 0.176 5.07(5.17) 3.00(9) 0.214 3.17(4.31) 1.00(4) 0.088 19.91(13.29) 18.00(18) 0.060
 Definite malocclusion-treatment selective 111 7.89(3.20) 8.00(4) 5.06(4.15) 4.00(6) 5.79(6.01) 4.00(9) 4.11(5.36) 2.00(6) 22.86(15.74) 18.00(22)
 Severe malocclusion-treatment highly desirable 65 6.94(2.67) 6.00(4) 4.78(3.93) 3.00(6) 5.02(5.95) 3.00(7) 2.66(4.13) 1.00(4) 19.40(13.56) 14.00(17)
 Very severe (handicapping) malocclusion-treatment mandatory 35 8.31(2.37) 8.00(4) 5.63(3.61) 5.00(5) 6.80(5.43) 7.00(9) 3.94(4.72) 2.00(4) 24.69(12.64) 23.00(17)
ICON treatment need
 No 241 7.40(3.05) 7.00(5) 0.319 4.55(3.97) 4.00(6) 0.061 5.29(5.62) 3.00(9) 0.291 3.51(4.75) 2.00(5) 0.519 20.74(14.42) 17.00(19) 0.207
 Yes 123 7.76(2.77) 8.00(4) 5.20(3.81) 5.00(6) 5.76(5.58) 4.00(9) 3.31(4.56) 2.00(4) 22.02(13.57) 18.00(19)
ICON complexity
 Easy 103 7.41(3.11) 8.00(5) 0.329 3.94(3.66) 3.00(5) 0.079 4.70(5.26) 2.00(8) 0.300 2.78(4.12) 1.00(4) 0.306 18.83(13.17) 16.00(18) 0.213
 Mild 188 7.36(2.89) 7.00(4) 5.06(4.05) 4.00(6) 5.49(5.58) 4.00(8) 3.89(5.11) 2.00(5) 21.80(14.60) 18.00(18)
 Moderate 34 7.97(3.02) 8.00(4) 5.06(4.61) 4.00(9) 6.00(6.36) 3.00(11) 2.88(4.03) 1.00(4) 21.91(15.51) 15.50(26)
 Difficult 21 8.52(2.70) 9.00(4) 5.00(2.57) 5.00(4) 6.71(5.64) 5.00(9) 3.19(3.99) 2.00(5) 23.43(11.95) 20.00(16)
 Very difficult 18 7.78(3.04) 8.50(5) 5.61(3.53) 5.00(5) 6.78(6.25) 6.00(12) 3.89(4.68) 2.00(3) 24.06(13.81) 21.50(26)
PAR
 Almost ideal or Acceptable occlusion 188 7.38(3.15) 7.00(5) 0.397 4.30(3.87) 3.00(5) 0.010* 5.08(5.60) 3.00(9) 0.078 3.16(4.55) 1.00(4) 0.049* 19.93(14.19) 17.00(18) 0.031*
 Malocclusion 176 7.66(2.75) 8.00(4) 5.27(3.93) 4.50(6) 5.84(5.60) 4.00(9) 3.73(4.81) 2.00(5) 22.51(13.99) 18.00(18)
  1. Nonparametric tests: comparison between two samples used the Mann-Whitney U test; others used the Kruskal-Wallis H test; *: P < 0.05, **P < 0.01
  2. IOTN index of orthodontic treatment need, DHC dental health component, AC aesthetic component, ICON index of complexity, outcome and need, PAR peer assessment rating, CPI community periodontal index, DMFT decayed, missing and filled teeth
  3. SiC Index significant caries index, OS oral symptoms domain, FL functional limitations domain, EWB emotional well-being, SWB social well-being, CPQ child perceptions questionnaire, SD standard deviation, IQR interquartile range