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Table 2 Prospective association between exercise frequency and health related quality of life at follow-up, 3 years later

From: The prospective and concurrent effect of exercise on health related quality of life in older adults over a 3 year period

  Health-related quality of life (EQ 5D scores)
Unadjusted Adjusted* Adjusted *
  Beta estimates (95% CI)*  
# Times a week exercising at baseline for more than 20 minutes 0.003 (0.001, 0.005)ª 0.002 (0.0004, 0.004)ª 0.001 (-0.001, 0.003)
# Times a week exercising at follow-up for more than 20 minutes   0.002 (0.001, 0.003)ª 0.002 (0.001, 0.003)¶
HR-QOL at baseline   0.174 (0.140, 0.208)§ 0.151 (0.116, 0.187)ª
Sex
 Females versus Males    -0.015 (-0.029, -0.001)¶
Age
 ≥ 75 versus 65 – 74 years    -0.005 (-0.019, 0.010)
Marital status
 Married versus Not Married    -0.001 (-0.016, 0.0133)
Education
 Primary versus High School and post-secondary    0.018 (-0.006, 0.041)
Yearly Household Income
 ≥ $55,000 versus < $55,000    -0.014 (-0.071, 0.044)
Area of residence
 Low/Medium versus High deprivation    <0.0001 (-0.013, 0.013)
Current smoker
 Yes versus No    -0.045 (-0.071, -0.0198)ª
At least one alcoholic drink, ≥ twice a week, every week in last 6 months
 Yes versus No    0.013 (-0.001, 0.027)
# of chronic physical disorders
 ≥ 3 versus 0-2    -0.022 (-0.037, -0.008)§
Depression
 Yes versus No    -0.007 (-0.036, 0.021)
Social support
 3 versus 0-2    0.011 (-0.008, 0.030)
Number of Daily Hassles
 ≥ 5 versus 0-4    -0.022 (-0.035, -0.008)§
R2 adjusted 0.01 0.12 0.15
  1. *Estimates adjusted for all other variables in model
  2. ªP<0.001
  3. §P<0.002
  4. ¶ <0.05