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Table 4 Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios of the lowest quintile of EQ-5D index for the highest quintile in adults aged over 50 years

From: Factors associated with health-related quality of life in Koreans aged over 50 Years: the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

  Total Male Female
OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value OR (95% CI) P-value
Gender
 Male (reference) 1 0.05     
 Female 1.36 (1–1.85)      
Age(years)
 50–59 (reference) 1 0.00* 1 0.01* 1 0.00*
 60–69 1.23 (0.91–1.66)   1.21 (0.73–2.01)   1.2 (0.8–1.81)  
 70+ 2.38 (1.66–3.4)   2.32 (1.34–4.00)   2.46 (1.49–4.05)  
BMI
 Normal (reference) 1 0.03* 1 0.97 1 0.06
 Low 1.71 (0.85–3.43)   0.92 (0.38–2.23)   3.16 (1.06–9.36)  
 Obesity 1.36 (1.05–1.76)   1.03 (0.64–1.64)   1.6 (1.16–2.22)  
Educational level
 College (reference) 1 0.00* 1 0.00* 1 0.00*
 Elementary 5.66 (3.36–9.53)   6.33 (3.44–11.65)   3.94 (1.51–10.29)  
 Middle 3.15 (1.88–5.3)   3.14 (1.54–6.42)   2.64 (1.05–6.62)  
 High 2.75 (1.63–4.64)   3.43 (1.6–7.36)   1.67 (0.64–4.38)  
Household net income
 High (reference) 1 0.00* 1 0.02* 1 0.00*
 Low 1.76 (1.25–2.49)   1.04 (0.62–1.75)   2.8 (1.85–4.24)  
 Low to mid 1.23 (0.83–1.84)   0.97 (0.51–1.86)   1.6 (1.01–2.53)  
 Mid to high 0.86 (0.58–1.27)   0.49 (0.28–0.86)   1.24 (0.77–2)  
Residential area
 City (reference) 1 0.02* 1 0.01* 1 0.50
 Rural 1.37 (1.06–1.78)   1.83 (1.15–2.91)   1.12 (0.81–1.55)  
Current marital status
 Married (reference) 1 0.63 1 0.43 1 0.52
 Unmarried, divorced, widow or widower 1.08 (0.79–1.48)   0.78 (0.41–1.45)   1.13 (0.78–1.64)  
Employed
 Yes (reference) 1 0.01* 1 0.17 1 0.01*
 No 1.47 (1.1–1.96)   1.32 (0.89–1.96)   1.62 (1.14–2.31)  
Smoking
 No (reference) 1 0.80 1 0.90 1 0.56
 Yes 1.06 (0.68–1.66)   1.03 (0.62–1.73)   1.31 (0.52–3.29)  
Diabetes
 No (reference) 1 0.19 1 0.15 1 0.71
 Yes 1.17 (0.93–1.48)   1.28 (0.92–1.8)   1.07 (0.75–1.52)  
Hypertension
 No (reference) 1 0.27 1 0.68 1 0.11
 Yes 1.18 (0.88–1.58)   0.92 (0.62–1.37)   1.4 (0.92–2.12)  
CAD
 No (reference) 1 0.09 1 0.81 1 0.03*
 Yes 1.54 (0.93–2.54)   0.93 (0.51–1.7)   2.48 (1.11–5.51)  
Dyslipidaemia
 No (reference) 1 0.21 1 0.80 1 0.22
 Yes 1.26 (0.88–1.8)   1.1 (0.54–2.21)   1.31 (0.85–2.01)  
Stroke
 No (reference) 1 0.05 1 0.04* 1 0.82
 Yes 2.03 (1–4.13)   2.75 (1.03–7.37)   1.07 (0.6–1.9)  
CRD
 No (reference) 1 0.91 1 0.07 1 0.03*
 Yes 1.2 (0.05–27.05)   9.44 (0.8–111.3)   0.19 (0.04–0.82)  
Arthritis
 No (reference) 1 0.00* 1 0.00* 1 0.00*
 Yes 4.03 (3.19–5.09)   3.3 (2.16–5.05)   4.58 (3.34–6.27)  
Cancer
 No (reference) 1 0.02* 1 0.06 1 0.18
 Yes 1.48 (1.08–2.05)   1.68 (0.98–2.88)   1.34 (0.87–2.07)  
Depression
 No (reference) 1 0.00* 1 0.00* 1 0.00*
 Yes 2.71 (1.96–3.75)   3.28 (1.81–5.96)   2.67 (1.9–3.76)  
 R2 0.41 0.29 0.43
  1. *P < 0.05