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Table 1 General characteristics of the 17,937 participants aged over 50 years

From: Factors associated with health-related quality of life in Koreans aged over 50 Years: the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

  Total (n = 17,937) Male (n = 7627) Female (n = 10,310) P-values
EQ-5D index 0.90 ± 0.00 0.93 ± 0.00 0.87 ± 0.00 0.00*
Age (n (%))
 50–59 years 6441 (46.8%) 2733 (50.6%) 3708 (43.5%) 0.00*
 60–69 years 5936 (28.2%) 2619 (28.9%) 3317 (27.7%)
 70+ years 5560 (25%) 2275 (20.6%) 3285 (28.8%)
BMI (n (%))
 Low 563 (2.8%) 296 (3.3%) 267 (2.4%) 0.00*
 Normal 10,986 (61.3%) 4904 (63.4%) 6082 (59.5%)
 Obesity 6291 (35.9%) 2381 (33.4%) 3910 (38.1%)
Educational level (n (%))
 Elementary school 9165 (48.5%) 2682 (33.0%) 6483 (61.9%) 0.00*
 Middle school 2895 (18.2%) 1453 (20.8%) 1442 (15.9%)
 High school 3548 (22.4%) 1979 (28.6%) 1569 (17.0%)
 College 1802 (10.9%) 1278 (17.5%) 524 (5.2%)
Household net income (n (%))
 Low 5912 (29.6%) 2212 (25%) 3700 (33.7%) 0.00*
 Low to mid 4579 (26.3%) 1988 (26.3%) 2591 (26.4%)
 Mid to high 3437 (21.1%) 1560 (22.6%) 1877 (19.9%)
 High 3552 (22.9%) 1683 (26.2%) 1869 (20.1%)
Residential area, City (n (%)) 7435 (44.6%) 3154 (44.7%) 4281 (44.6%) 0.94
Current marital status, married (n (%)) 13,495 (77.3%) 6918 (91.9%) 6577 (64.9%) 0.00*
Employed (n (%)) 8700 (53.7%) 4679 (68.1%) 4021 (41.3%) 0.00*
Smoking (n (%)) 2822 (19.2%) 2392 (35.8%) 430 (4.9%) 0.00*
DM (n (%)) 6631 (41.7%) 3246 (46.9%) 3385 (37.2%) 0.00*
HBP (n (%)) 13,073 (74.2%) 5683 (76.2%) 7390 (72.5%) 0.00*
CAD (n (%)) 885 (4.7%) 431 (5.1%) 454 (4.3%) 0.04*
Dyslipidaemia (n (%)) 2733 (15.5%) 939 (13%) 1794 (17.7%) 0.00*
Stroke (n (%)) 726 (3.7%) 368 (4.1%) 358 (3.3%) 0.02*
CRD (n (%)) 126 (0.7%) 47 (0.6%) 79 (0.8%) 0.24
Arthritis (n (%)) 5384 (27.9%) 1113 (13.6%) 4271 (40.2%) 0.00*
Cancer (n (%)) 939 (21.9%) 378 (19.4%) 561 (24%) 0.00*
Depression (n (%)) 3036 (16.6%) 689 (9.3%) 2347 (22.8%) 0.00*
  1. Values (n (%)) are the number and the percentage of participants
  2. T-test/Chi-square test and P-value (*P < 0.05) for group differences between the male and female group
  3. DM: diabetes mellitus; HBP: hypertension; CAD: coronary artery disease (including myocardial infarction or angina pectoris); CRD: chronic renal disease