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Table 2 Example of the changes made throughout the translation of the Chilean version of the CLEFT-Q

From: Translation and cultural adaptation of the CLEFT-Q for use in Colombia, Chile, and Spain

Scale Item Difficult to Translate (specific word or phrase) Solution Changed meaning post back translation (specific word or phrase) Solution Difficult for patients to understand or interpret
(specific word or phrase)
Solution
Face …how your face looks when you look your best? Yes (when you look your best) Excluded “when you look your best” from Chilean version Yes Used equivalent Chilean phrase for “when you look great” No n/a
Face …how your face looks when you laugh? No n/a Yes (laugh) Used equivalent Chilean phrase for “laugh out loud” No n/a
Nose ...how the bridge of your nose looks (the part of the nose where glasses sit)? Yes (bridge) Used equivalent Chilean phrase for “top of the nose where the glasses are placed” No n/a No n/a
Nose …how wide your nose looks at the bottom (from side to side)? Yes (at the bottom) Excluded “at the bottom” from Chilean version No n/a No n/a
Nose …the shape of your nose (how flat or raised up it is)? Yes (flat or raised up) Excluded “(how flat or raised up it is)” from Chilean version No n/a No n/a
Nostrils …the width of your nostrils (from side to side)? Yes (from side to side) Excluded “(from side to side)” from Chilean version No n/a No n/a
Lips …how much you can move your lips (like to whistle or kiss)? No n/a Yes (how much you can move) Used equivalent Chilean phrase for “how your lips move” No n/a
Lips …how your lips look when you laugh? No n/a Yes (laugh) Used equivalent Chilean phrase for “laugh out loud” No n/a
Cleft Lip Scar …how your cleft lip scar feels when you touch it (smooth or bumpy)? Yes (smooth or bumpy) Excluded “(smooth or bumpy)” from Chilean version No n/a No n/a
Cleft Lip Scar …how your cleft lip scar looks in the mirror? No n/a Yes (how your) Used equivalent Chilean phrase for “what does the scar on the lip look like in the mirror” No n/a
Jaws …how far your bottom jaw comes out compared to your top jaw? No n/a Yes (compared to your top jaw) Used equivalent Chilean phrase for “compared to your top jaw” No n/a
Psychological I feel okay about myself. Yes (okay) Used equivalent Chilean word for “comfortable” No n/a No n/a
Psychological I feel like I fit in. No n/a Yes (fit in) Used equivalent Chilean phrase for “I belong” No n/a
School Other students listen to me when I talk. No n/a Yes (listen to me) Used equivalent Chilean phrase for “listen to me” No n/a
School I fit in at school. No n/a Yes (fit in) Used equivalent Chilean phrase for “I feel part of my school” No n/a
Social I have fun with friends. No n/a Yes (have fun) Used equivalent Chilean phrase for “have fun” No n/a
Social I feel like I fit in with people. Yes (fit in) Used equivalent Chilean phrase for “I feel that I integrate well with people” No n/a No n/a
Social It’s okay when people look at my face. Yes (okay) Used equivalent Chilean phrase for “it is fine” No n/a No n/a
Social It’s okay if people ask me about my face. Yes (okay) Used equivalent Chilean phrase for “it is fine” No n/a No n/a
Speech Function I need to try hard to speak well. No n/a Yes (I need to try hard) Used equivalent Chilean phrase for “need to make an effort” No n/a
Eating/Drinking I have trouble biting into some foods. No n/a Yes (I have trouble) Used equivalent Chilean phrase for “have trouble” No n/a
Eating/Drinking I have to avoid eating certain foods. No n/a Yes (have to) Used equivalent Chilean phrase for “have to” No n/a
  1. n/a = not applicable