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Table 2 Important single item results of QPS modules at baseline visit (V2)

From: Initial psychometric validation of the questionnaire on pain caused by spasticity (QPS)

QPS module, item number and description Mean (SD) Range Floor N (%) Ceiling N (%) Missing N (%) Item-Total Correlation c Cronbach’s α d
Child self LL n = 68 a
 3. How much did your <limb > hurt when tight 4.4 (2.7) 0–10 5 (7.4%) 5 (7.4%) 0 (0.0%)
 5. How much did your <limb > hurt when sitting 0.2 (0.7) 0–4 61 (89.7%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) .322** 0.619
 7. How much did your <limb > hurt when moving 1.0 (1.7) 0–6 49 (72.1%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) .751** 0.385
 9. How much did your <limb > hurt during exercise 5.8 (2.8) 0–10 2 (2.9%) 10 (14.7%) 0 (0.0%) .761** 0.656
 12. How much did your <limb > hurt hard 1.2 (1.8) 0–6 43 (63.2%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) .788** 0.337
Child self UL n = 30 a
 3. How much did your <limb > hurt when tight 4.4 (2.7) 0–10 2 (6.7%) 2 (6.7%) 0 (0.0%)
 5. How much did your <limb > hurt when sitting 0.2 (0.7) 0–4 29 (96.7%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) .392* 0.227
 7. How much did your <limb > hurt when moving 1.0 (1.7) 0–4 25 (83.3%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) .487** 0.168
 9. How much did your <limb > hurt during exercise 5.8 (2.8) 0–10 2 (6.7%) 2 (6.7%) 0 (0.0%) .653** 0.454
 12. How much did your <limb > hurt hard 1.2 (1.8) 0–10 20 (66.7%) 1 (3.3%) 0 (0.0%) .745** 0.052
Child interviewer LL n = 40 a
 3. How much did your <limb > hurt when tight 3.6 (2.5) 0–8 7 (17.5%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%)
 5. How much did your <limb > hurt when sitting 2.0 (2.5) 0–8 22 (55.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) .817** 0.701
 7. How much did your <limb > hurt when moving 3.0 (2.2) 0–8 8 (20.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) .734** 0.755
 9. How much did your <limb > hurt during exercise 6.6 (2.5) 0–10 1 (2.5%) 4 (10.0%) 0 (0.0%) .789** 0.734
 12. How much did your <limb > hurt hard 3.3 (1.9) 0–8 4 (10.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) .777** 0.715
Child interviewer UL n = 14 a
 3. How much did your <limb > hurt when tight 3.6 (2.5) 0–8 2 (14.3%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%)
 5. How much did your <limb > hurt when sitting 2.0 (2.5) 0–6 10 (71.4%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) .886** 0.899
 7. How much did your <limb > hurt when moving 3.0 (2.2) 0–6 7 (50.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) .867** 0.886
 9. How much did your <limb > hurt during exercise 6.6 (2.5) 2–8 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) .913** 0.880
 12. How much did your <limb > hurt hard 3.3 (1.9) 0–6 2 (14.3%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) .908** 0.860
Parent LL, n = 125 b
 2. Hours/day spent in direct contact 17.9 (8.2) 1–24 1 (0.8%) 76 (60.8%) 1 (0.8%)
 8. Often seen signs of pain when tight 1.7 (1.0) 0–4 20 (16.0%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (0.8%)
 9b. Often seen signs of pain at rest 0.4 (0.6) 0–3 90 (72.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) .679** 0.699
 10b. Often seen signs of pain activities 0.9 (0.9) 0–3 51 (40.8%) 0 (0.0%) 2 (1.6%) .727** 0.693
 11b. Often seen signs of pain exercise 2.7 (1.0) 0–4 3 (2.4%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) .801** 0.639
 13b. Often seen signs of pain hard thing 1.3 (1.1) 0–4 36 (28.8%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) .800** 0.674
Parent UL, n = 52 b
 2. Hours/day spent in direct contact 19.3 (7.8) 2–24 0 (0.0%) 37 (71.2%) 0 (0.0%)
 8. Often seen signs of pain when tight 1.6 (1.0) 0–4 8 (15.4%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%)
 9b. Often seen signs of pain at rest 0.3 (0.5) 0–2 41 (78.8%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) .531** 0.709
10b. Often seen signs of pain activities 1 (0.9) 0–3 20 (38.5%) 0 (0.0%) 1 (1.9%) .738** 0.627
 11b. Often seen signs of pain exercise 2.4 (0.9) 1–4 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) .772** 0.585
 13b. Often seen signs of pain hard thing 1.3 (1.2) 0–4 18 (34.6%) 0 (0.0%) 0 (0.0%) .842** 0.573
  1. QPS score items are items 5, 7, 9 and 12 for child modules and items 9b, 10b, 11b, and 13b for parent modules
  2. QPS modules: Self, self-administered; Interviewer, interviewer-administered
  3. LL lower limb, UL upper limb, SD standard deviation
  4. aChild/adolescent QPS score range: 0 = ‘no hurt’ to 10 = ‘hurts worst’
  5. bParent QPS score ranges: Item 2, 0–24 h; Items 8–13b, 0 = ‘never’ to 4 = ‘always’
  6. ccorrected Pearson correlations for QPS score; **, significance at 0.01 level
  7. dif item is missing for QPS score