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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of children and parents at baseline visit (V2)

From: Initial psychometric validation of the questionnaire on pain caused by spasticity (QPS)

   Children,
N = 137
Parents,
N = 137
Age, years Mean (SD, range) 6.6 (3.2, 2.0–17.5) 39.6 (11.0, 24.9–69.1)
Gender, n (%) Male 94 (68.6) 23 (16.8)
Female 43 (31.4) 114 (83.2)
Education Category, n (%) Elementary school 136 (99.3) 32 (23.4)
High school 1 (0.7) 75 (54.7)
University 30 (21.9)
Ethnic group, n (%) Chinese 128 (93.4) 129 (94.2)
Non-Chinesea 9 (6.6) 8 (5.8)
Age at CP diagnosis, years Mean (SD, range) 1.8 (1.7, 0.1–10)  
Age at spasticity diagnosis, years Mean (SD, range) 1.9 (1.6, 0.1–10)  
Main Cause of CP, n (%)b Premature delivery 70 (51.1)  
Lacking oxygen 46 (33.6)  
Low birth weight 13 (9.5)  
Brain conditions 9 (6.6)  
Reason unclear 12 (8.8)  
Other causes 25 (18.2)  
GMFCS, n (%) Level I – Walks without limitations 27 (19.7)  
Level II – Walks with limitations 46 (33.6)  
Level III –Walks using a hand-held mobility device 29 (21.2)  
Level IV –Self-mobility with limitations; may use powered mobility 13 (9.5)  
Level V – Transported in a manual wheelchair 22 (16.1)  
MACS, n (%) Level I – Handles objects easily and successfully 40 (29.2)  
Level II – Handles most objects but with somewhat reduced quality and/or speed of achievement 49 (35.8)  
Level III – Handles objects with difficulty; needs help to prepare and/or modify activities 30 (21.9)  
Level IV – Handles a limited selection of easily managed objects in adapted situations 10 (7.3)  
Level V – Does not handle objects and has severely limited ability to perform even simple actions. 4 (2.9)  
Missing 4 (2.9)  
  1. CP cerebral palsy, GMFCS Gross Motor Function Classification System - Expanded and Revised, MACS Manual Ability Classification System, SD standard deviation
  2. aRefers to ethnicity/country of birth; bMultiple answers possible