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Table 5 Full OLS estimates of ADL measures on MCS

From: The Onset of ADL Difficulties and Changes in Health-Related Quality of Life

  Each ADL ADL Counts
  (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7)
  MCS MCS MCS MCS MCS MCS MCS
N 473282 473282 473282 473282 473282 473282 473282
R-Squared 0.281 0.279 0.269 0.276 0.277 0.273 0.302
MCS_Baseline 0.469*** 0.470*** 0.473*** 0.470*** 0.471*** 0.473*** 0.461***
  (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00) (0.00)
Male 0.0491 0.125*** 0.0689* 0.0959** 0.0916** 0.0906** 0.143***
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Race Category
White 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.)
Black -0.332*** -0.351*** -0.381*** -0.461*** -0.496*** -0.380*** -0.440***
  (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06)
Other -0.630*** -0.612*** -0.579*** -0.676*** -0.636*** -0.582*** -0.683***
  (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.13) (0.14) (0.13) (0.14)
Asian -1.554*** -1.551*** -1.517*** -1.608*** -1.569*** -1.479*** -1.533***
  (0.25) (0.26) (0.26) (0.25) (0.26) (0.25) (0.26)
Hispanic -1.336*** -1.271*** -1.319*** -1.311*** -1.362*** -1.323*** -1.222***
  (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.13)
American Native -0.747* -0.745* -0.782* -0.761* -0.715* -0.827* -0.655*
  (0.33) (0.34) (0.33) (0.34) (0.34) (0.33) (0.33)
Unknown -0.0378 -0.0135 -0.0384 -0.136 -0.188 -0.0831 -0.128
  (0.21) (0.21) (0.21) (0.21) (0.21) (0.21) (0.21)
Education Category
<High School 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.)
High Schoor or GED 0.888*** 0.907*** 0.941*** 0.949*** 0.914*** 0.936*** 0.840***
  (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04)
Some College or 2 year degree 1.127*** 1.166*** 1.189*** 1.206*** 1.156*** 1.196*** 1.090***
  (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04)
Four Year College Degree or More 1.230*** 1.274*** 1.298*** 1.316*** 1.238*** 1.307*** 1.174***
  (0.04) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.04)
Missing 0.599*** 0.632*** 0.677*** 0.665*** 0.608*** 0.669*** 0.612***
  (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.13)
Income Category
<$10,000 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.)
$10,000-$19,999 0.453*** 0.486*** 0.497*** 0.511*** 0.515*** 0.488*** 0.415***
  (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07)
20000-29999 0.799*** 0.841*** 0.869*** 0.863*** 0.852*** 0.862*** 0.733***
  (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07)
30000-49999 1.121*** 1.178*** 1.210*** 1.181*** 1.158*** 1.201*** 1.025***
  (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07)
>50000 1.487*** 1.543*** 1.595*** 1.524*** 1.490*** 1.576*** 1.343***
  (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07)
Don't Know 0.756*** 0.787*** 0.785*** 0.757*** 0.755*** 0.799*** 0.681***
  (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07)
Missing 1.254*** 1.300*** 1.330*** 1.306*** 1.292*** 1.335*** 1.166***
  (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07)
Marital Status
Married 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.)
Divorced 0.238*** 0.219*** 0.280*** 0.246*** 0.246*** 0.261*** 0.189***
  (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04)
Separated -0.0561 -0.0302 0.0317 -0.00125 0.00732 0.00686 -0.0312
  (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.14)
Widowed 0.657*** 0.591*** 0.599*** 0.641*** 0.698*** 0.612*** 0.689***
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Never Married 0.253*** 0.201** 0.260*** 0.245*** 0.234*** 0.250*** 0.210**
  (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07)
Missing 0.622*** 0.558*** 0.623*** 0.673*** 0.675*** 0.607*** 0.606***
  (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.14)
Medical History
Hypertension -0.0462* -0.0577* -0.0595* -0.0335 0.0355 -0.0587* -0.00416
  (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02)
Angina/Coronary Artery Disease -0.252*** -0.271*** -0.262*** -0.257*** -0.183*** -0.284*** -0.212***
  (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05)
Congestive Heart Failure -0.458*** -0.521*** -0.587*** -0.517*** -0.395*** -0.543*** -0.326***
  (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07)
Myocardial Infarction Question -0.0771 -0.0833 -0.111* -0.0764 -0.0423 -0.104* -0.0249
  (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05)
Other Heart Conditions Question -0.161*** -0.169*** -0.191*** -0.111*** -0.0870** -0.175*** -0.0829**
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Stroke -0.427*** -0.472*** -0.547*** -0.425*** -0.382*** -0.532*** -0.235***
  (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06)
COPD -0.309*** -0.382*** -0.431*** -0.395*** -0.241*** -0.437*** -0.243***
  (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04)
Inflammatory Bowel Disease -0.870*** -0.856*** -0.853*** -0.831*** -0.839*** -0.833*** -0.807***
  (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07)
Arthritis of Hip/Knee -0.102*** -0.113*** -0.177*** 0.0510 0.130*** -0.126*** 0.140***
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Arthritis of Hand/Wrist -0.340*** -0.333*** -0.343*** -0.294*** -0.302*** -0.348*** -0.269***
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Osteoporosis -0.273*** -0.294*** -0.319*** -0.266*** -0.256*** -0.297*** -0.231***
  (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04)
Sciatica -0.432*** -0.437*** -0.462*** -0.384*** -0.311*** -0.441*** -0.318***
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Diabetes -0.313*** -0.332*** -0.362*** -0.287*** -0.256*** -0.346*** -0.225***
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Any Cancer -0.0151 -0.0238 -0.0126 -0.0111 0.0172 -0.0318 0.0268
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Hypertension_Missing -0.0542 -0.0668 -0.0558 -0.0909 -0.101 -0.0621 -0.0643
  (0.16) (0.16) (0.16) (0.16) (0.16) (0.16) (0.15)
Angina/Coronary Artery Disease_Missing -0.138 -0.184 -0.182 -0.185 -0.180 -0.174 -0.159
  (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.13) (0.13)
Congestive Heart Failure_Missing 0.110 0.158 0.162 0.0801 0.134 0.146 0.101
  (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.14)
Myocardial Infarction Question_Missing 0.0627 0.0874 0.0315 0.0584 0.0456 0.0374 0.115
  (0.16) (0.17) (0.16) (0.16) (0.16) (0.16) (0.16)
Other Heart Conditions Question_Missing -0.369** -0.350* -0.412** -0.352** -0.362** -0.349* -0.357**
  (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.13) (0.13) (0.14) (0.13)
Stroke_Missing -0.328 -0.336 -0.326 -0.359* -0.341 -0.353 -0.307
  (0.18) (0.18) (0.18) (0.18) (0.18) (0.18) (0.18)
COPD_Missing 0.0833 0.0297 0.0664 0.0850 0.105 0.0739 0.0820
  (0.18) (0.18) (0.18) (0.18) (0.18) (0.18) (0.18)
Inflammatory Bowel Disease_Missing -0.441** -0.407** -0.439** -0.440** -0.419** -0.429** -0.429**
  (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.13) (0.14) (0.14)
Arthritis of Hip/Knee_Missing -0.349* -0.322* -0.350* -0.260 -0.237 -0.375** -0.216
  (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.14)
Arthritis of Hand/Wrist_Missing 0.00572 -0.0161 -0.0130 0.00754 -0.00123 -0.0300 0.0255
  (0.12) (0.12) (0.12) (0.12) (0.12) (0.13) (0.12)
Osteoporosis_Missing -0.344* -0.395** -0.387** -0.329* -0.346* -0.381** -0.339**
  (0.13) (0.13) (0.14) (0.13) (0.13) (0.13) (0.13)
Sciatica_Missing -0.176 -0.147 -0.179 -0.151 -0.0944 -0.143 -0.125
  (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.13)
Diabetes_Missing -0.114 -0.0676 -0.143 -0.125 -0.0910 -0.128 -0.110
  (0.16) (0.16) (0.16) (0.16) (0.16) (0.16) (0.16)
Any Cancer_Missing -0.273 -0.263 -0.225 -0.242 -0.246 -0.250 -0.260
  (0.17) (0.17) (0.17) (0.17) (0.17) (0.17) (0.17)
Housing Category
Owned or being bought by you 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.)
Owned or being bought by someone in your family -0.178** -0.207*** -0.236*** -0.207*** -0.180*** -0.225*** -0.115*
  (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05)
Rented for money -0.361*** -0.395*** -0.417*** -0.386*** -0.337*** -0.394*** -0.292***
  (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05) (0.05)
Live without payment of rent -0.268** -0.270* -0.324** -0.266* -0.288** -0.326** -0.214*
  (0.10) (0.10) (0.10) (0.10) (0.10) (0.10) (0.10)
None of the above -0.682*** -0.705*** -0.718*** -0.708*** -0.679*** -0.692*** -0.632***
  (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07) (0.07)
Missing -0.201* -0.206* -0.247* -0.202* -0.174 -0.217* -0.142
  (0.09) (0.10) (0.10) (0.10) (0.10) (0.10) (0.10)
BMI Category
Underweight ( < 20) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
  (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.) (.)
Normal (20-24) 0.223*** 0.256*** 0.246*** 0.324*** 0.291*** 0.309*** 0.208***
  (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06)
Overweight (25-29) 0.421*** 0.469*** 0.454*** 0.605*** 0.573*** 0.537*** 0.459***
  (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06)
Obese (30-34) 0.545*** 0.598*** 0.546*** 0.803*** 0.805*** 0.659*** 0.686***
  (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06) (0.06)
Morbid Obesity (>=35) 0.724*** 0.765*** 0.653*** 1.045*** 1.146*** 0.807*** 1.015***
  (0.08) (0.08) (0.08) (0.08) (0.08) (0.08) (0.08)
Missing 0.155 0.206 0.140 0.328** 0.319** 0.259* 0.270*
  (0.11) (0.11) (0.11) (0.11) (0.11) (0.11) (0.11)
Current Smoker -0.661*** -0.705*** -0.668*** -0.732*** -0.607*** -0.699*** -0.645***
  (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04)
Current Smoker_Missing 0.0593 0.0597 0.0393 0.0404 0.0419 0.0488 0.0317
  (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.14) (0.13)
Bone Density Test for Osteoporosis 0.193*** 0.226*** 0.230*** 0.224*** 0.218*** 0.235*** 0.186***
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Bone Density Test for Osteoporosis_Missing -0.261** -0.240* -0.282** -0.278** -0.313** -0.282** -0.262**
  (0.10) (0.10) (0.10) (0.10) (0.10) (0.10) (0.09)
Urine Leakage -0.589*** -0.594*** -0.636*** -0.509*** -0.513*** -0.592*** -0.460***
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Urine Leakage_Missing -0.513*** -0.497*** -0.518*** -0.490*** -0.472*** -0.517*** -0.423***
  (0.11) (0.11) (0.11) (0.11) (0.10) (0.11) (0.10)
Talked with Doctor About Physical Activities 0.155*** 0.175*** 0.194*** 0.164*** 0.147*** 0.181*** 0.132***
  (0.02) (0.03) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02) (0.02)
Talked with Doctor About Physical Activities_Missing 0.0273 0.0383 0.0442 0.0251 0.0212 0.0348 0.00178
  (0.08) (0.08) (0.08) (0.08) (0.08) (0.08) (0.08)
ADL Items
Bathing -7.931***       
  (0.09)       
Dressing   -8.718***      
   (0.10)      
Eating    -10.13***     
    (0.15)     
Getting In/Out of Chairs     -5.340***    
     (0.06)    
Walking      -4.368***   
      (0.05)   
Using the Toilet       -8.992***  
       (0.11)  
ADL Scale
0        0
        (.)
1        -2.293***
        (0.05)
2        -4.278***
        (0.07)
3        -6.707***
        (0.13)
4        -9.397***
        (0.17)
5        -11.80***
        (0.22)
6        -13.36***
        (0.22)
Benefit Duration Less than 1 Year -0.0816** -0.0810** -0.0750** -0.0930*** -0.107*** -0.0746** -0.104***
  (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03) (0.03)
Plan Duration Less than 5 Year 0.00172 0.0116 0.0144 0.00296 -0.00632 0.00208 -0.00469
  (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04) (0.04)
Year Trend 0.158*** 0.157*** 0.161*** 0.152*** 0.159*** 0.156*** 0.148***
  (0.01) (0.01) (0.01) (0.01) (0.01) (0.01) (0.01)
Constant 26.71*** 26.46*** 26.60*** 26.66*** 26.43*** 27.65***  
  (0.16) (0.16) (0.15) (0.16) (0.16) (0.15)  
  1. Notes: This is the full results for Panel B of Table 2 with adjustment for covariates listed in Table 1 except baseline PCS, PUD and MUD. *p<0.1, **p<0.05, ***p<0.01