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Table 1 Characteristics of participants stratified by caregiver age

From: Effects of home-based long-term care services on caregiver health according to age

Variables Caregivers aged less than 65
n = 460
Caregivers aged 65 or older
n = 138
p-value
  n (%) / Mean ± SD n (%) / Mean ± SD  
Family caregivers
 SRH after service use a 2.86 ± 0.95 2.67 ± 0.98 0.047
 Sex    0.709
  Male 141 (30.7) 40 (29.0)  
  Female 319 (69.3) 98 (71.0)  
 Marital status    <0.001
  Unmarried 88 (19.3) 5 (3.6)  
  Married 369 (80.7) 132 (96.4)  
 Education level    <0.001
   ≤ Elementary school 20 (4.3) 21 (15.2)  
  Middle school 29 (6.3) 27 (19.6)  
  High school 144 (31.3) 44 (31.9)  
   ≥ College 267 (58.0) 46 (33.3)  
 Relationship with care recipient    <0.001
  Spouse 51 (11.1) 98 (71.0)  
  Son 133 (29.0) 17 (12.3)  
  Daughter 179 (39.0) 14 (10.1)  
  Daughter-in-law 71 (15.5) 2 (1.4)  
  Others b 25 (5.4) 7 (5.1)  
 Quality of relationship with care recipient    0.982
  Very bad 5 (1.1) 1 (0.7)  
  Bad 12 (2.6) 4 (2.9)  
  Good 181 (39.9) 54 (39.7)  
  Very good 256 (56.4) 77 (56.6)  
 Job    <0.001
  No 220 (48.2) 127 (92.0)  
  Yes 236 (51.8) 11 (8.0)  
 Household monthly income (NTD) c    0.013
   < 30,000 53 (15.1) 21 (27.6)  
  30,000–69,999 148 (42.2) 33 (43.4)  
   ≥ 70,000 150 (42.7) 22 (28.9)  
 Family income spent on caring for the care recipient (%)    0.029
  20 or below 126 (30.1) 25 (20.2)  
  21–40 128 (30.5) 34 (27.4)  
  41–60 103 (24.6) 34 (27.4)  
  61–80 34 (8.1) 14 (11.3)  
  81–100 28 (6.7) 17 (13.7)  
 Caregiving period (years) 6.30 ± 5.67 7.41 ± 6.45 0.060
Care recipients
 Age    0.466
  65 or less 39 (9.5) 6 (5.0)  
  65–74 71 (17.3) 23 (19.3)  
  75–84 151 (36.8) 47 (39.5)  
  85 or older 149 (36.3) 43 (36.1)  
 Sex    0.002
  Male 174 (42.0) 70 (58.3)  
  Female 240 (58.0) 50 (41.7)  
 Marital status    0.583
  Unmarried 14 (3.4) 6 (5.0)  
  Married 400 (96.6) 114 (95.0)  
 Education level    0.002
  Illiterate 100 (24.3) 14 (11.7)  
  Literate/Primary school 130 (31.6) 33 (27.5)  
  Junior high and above 182 (44.2) 73 (60.8)  
 Living alone    0.051
  No 355 (85.7) 111 (92.5)  
  Yes 59 (14.3) 9 (7.5)  
 Number of family members living with care recipient    <0.001
  0 59 (14.5) 9 (7.5)  
  1–3 184 (45.1) 83 (69.2)  
  4 or more 165 (40.4) 28 (23.3)  
 Quality of relationship with family    0.561
  Very bad 2 (0.5) 2 (1.7)  
  Bad 14 (3.4) 3 (2.5)  
  Good 182 (44.7) 55 (46.2)  
  Very good 209 (51.4) 59 (49.6)  
 Dependency level    0.002
  Intact 21 (5.1) 14 (11.7)  
  Low 62 (15.0) 30 (25.0)  
  Moderate 284 (68.6) 65 (54.2)  
  High 47 (11.4) 11 (9.2)  
 SRH 2.22 ± 0.95 2.32 ± 0.93 0.324
Use of home-based services
 Home nursing care 180 (43.5) 43 (35.8) 0.135
 Home rehabilitation 98 (23.8) 23 (19.2) 0.299
 Home respite care 55 (13.3) 14 (11.7) 0.642
 Home service 192 (46.4) 74 (61.7) 0.003
  1. p-value was examined using chi-squared and independent t tests. a was rated from 1 (very bad) to 5 (very good). b Others: son-in-law, grandchild, brother, sister, etc. c 30,000 NTD equals approximately 1000 USD. SD standard deviation, SRH self-rated health