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Table 2 Comparison of the DSMQ self-care activities in patients with HbA1c ≤ 7.5%, from 7.6 to 8.9% and ≥9.0%

From: Psychometric properties of the Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire (DSMQ) in Urdu

DSMQ HbA1c ≤ 7.5% Sign.a HbA1c 7.6–8.9% Sign.b HbA1c ≥ 9.0% Sign.c ANOVA
self-care activities (n = 49)   (n = 35)   (n = 46)   P-value
Glucose Management 8.18 ± 1.46 4.04 ± 1.71 ns 3.23 ± 2.22 < 0.001
Dietary Control 7.72 ± 1.30 3.62 ± 1.88 * 2.74 ± 1.55 < 0.001
Physical Activity 6.96 ± 1.97 2.79 ± 2.35 ns 1.81 ± 1.86 < 0.001
Health-Care Use 7.14 ± 1.62 4.03 ± 2.22 ns 3.45 ± 1.99 < 0.001
Sum Scale 7.64 ± 1.16 3.63 ± 1.74 ns 2.81 ± 1.58 < 0.001
  1. Data are M ± SD. Tests were One-way ANOVA and Scheffé Test for post-hoc group comparisons. Scheffé Test significance is expressed: *p < 0.05; ‡p < 0.001; ns, not significant
  2. DSMQ, Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; ANOVA, Analysis of Variance
  3. aregards comparison between the first and second group
  4. bregards comparison between the second and third group
  5. cregards comparison between the third and first group