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Table 1 Characteristics of the study sample (N = 130)

From: Psychometric properties of the Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire (DSMQ) in Urdu

Parameter n (%) or mean ± SD
Gender
Male 55 (42.4)
Female 75 (57.6)
Age (years) 51.3 ± 10.4
30–45 years 33 (25.4)
45–60 years 72 (55.4)
  > 60 years 25 (19.2)
BMI (kg/m2) 29.7 ± 6.2
Education
No Formal Education 50 (38.5)
Primary level 13 (10)
Secondary level 33 (25.4)
University Level 34 (26.2)
Diabetes duration (years) 8.5 ± 7.0
Anti-diabetic therapy
Exclusively insulin 14 (10.8)
Insulin combined with oral hypoglycemic agents 57 (43.9)
Oral Hypoglycemic agents only 59 (45.3)
HbA1c value (%) 8.6 ± 1.9
DSMQ ‘Sum Scale’ 4.8 ± 2.6
Subscale ‘Glucose Management’ 5.3 ± 2.9
Subscale ‘Dietary Control’ 4.8 ± 2.8
Subscale ‘Physical Activity’ 4.0 ± 3.1
Subscale ‘Health-Care Use’ 5.0 ± 2.6
  1. Data are n (%) or M ± SD
  2. BMI Body Mass Index, HbA1c glycated haemoglobin, DSMQ Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire, M mean, SD standard deviation