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Table 1 Item Content, Response Frequencies, Item Statistics and DIF Statistics for the Rumination Subscale of the CRSQ (N = 581)

From: Psychometric properties of the Children’s Response Styles Questionnaire in a Hong Kong Chinese community sample

Item Observed Response Frequencies (%)a Classic Item Statisticsb Factor Loading Item Parameter Estimatesc Fit Index (G 2)d Gender DIF (χ2)e
0 1 2 3 M SD r a b 1 b 2 b 3 a- DIF b- DIF
1. When I am sad, I think about how alone I feel 28.57 54.22 11.19 6.02 0.95 0.79 0.55 0.50 1.67 −0.82 1.33 2.29 66.01 7.1* 7.3
3. When I am sad, I go away by myself and think about why I feel this way 32.01 34.42 22.03 11.53 1.13 0.99 0.46 0.49 1.08 −0.88 0.74 2.23 96.24*
5. When I am sad, I think: “I’m ruining everything” 51.98 27.54 12.05 8.43 0.77 0.96 0.51 0.55 1.43 0.07 1.28 2.18 59.30
7. When I am sad, I think about how sad I feel 39.93 35.97 11.88 12.22 0.96 1.00 0.54 0.62 1.56 −0.40 1.00 1.72 52.30
9. When I am sad, I go some place alone to think about my feelings 42.17 29.78 15.32 12.74 0.99 1.04 0.42 0.46 0.95 −0.44 1.09 2.30 56.56
11. When I am sad, I think about how angry I am with myself 51.98 28.4 11.88 7.75 0.75 0.94 0.57 0.60 1.78 0.05 1.17 2.02 38.75
13. When I am sad, I think about other times when I have felt sad 35.11 30.98 17.56 16.35 1.15 1.08 0.59 0.73 1.86 −0.52 0.55 1.33 70.95
19. When I am sad, I think: “I’m disappointing my friends, family, or teachers” 48.19 29.26 13.25 9.29 0.84 0.98 0.38 0.40 0.93 −0.12 1.51 2.78 50.74
21. When I am sad, I think about all my failures, faults, and mistakes 33.91 37.52 14.63 13.94 1.09 1.02 0.59 0.67 1.80 −0.58 0.76 1.50 41.56
25. When I am sad, I think about how I don’t feel like doing anything 34.42 35.11 14.46 16.01 1.12 1.06 0.43 0.50 1.04 −0.76 0.94 1.89 57.33
  1. aResponse score categories contain: 0 = “Almost Never”, 1 = “Sometimes”, 2 = “Often”, and 3 = “Almost Always”
  2. b M = mean. SD = standard deviation. r = item-total correlation
  3. c a = item discrimination parameter estimates, b 1, b 2, b 3 = item severity parameter estimates
  4. dFit index: likelihood ratio goodness-of-fit statistic G 2 provided by PARSCALE. A nonsignificant result (Benjamini-Hochberg adjusted overall alpha level of .05) is an indicator of adequate model fit
  5. eGender differential item functioning (DIF): tested using the likelihood ratio-based significance test under the IRT framework (IRT-LR) in an iterative purification procedure for identifying DIF free anchor set. “−” indicates the anchor items which are free of differential item functioning (DIF)
  6. * p < Benjamini-Hochberg adjusted overall alpha level of .05