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Table 3 Results from the probit regression models (marginal effects) for each of the EQ-5D-5L dimensions for the sample as a whole

From: The impact of obesity on health-related quality of life in Spain

  DIM1: Mobility DIM2: Self-care DIM3: Usual Activities DIM4: Pain/Discomfort DIM5: Anxiety/Depression
Man −0.0007 −0.0023 −0.0063 −0.0609** −0.0301**
45–64 years old 0.0748** 0.0219** 0.0351** 0.0559** 0.0364**
≥65 years old 0.2350** 0.0855** 0.1196** 0.1203** 0.0240*
Upper class −0.0246** −0.0079* −0.0167** −0.0453** −0.0076
Lower class 0.0065 0.0076* 0.0117* 0.0168 0.0212*
Foreign −0.0078 −0.0063 −0.0161* 0.0002 0.0267*
Married −0.0158* −0.0052 −0.0056 0.0063 −0.0061
Separated −0.0139 0.0020 −0.0007 −0.0001 0.0200
Widowed 0.0259* 0.0149* 0.0311** 0.0329* 0.0403*
Respiratory diseases 0.0314** 0.0057 0.0255** 0.0539** 0.0169
Vascular diseases 0.0924** 0.0398** 0.0856** 0.1010** 0.0523**
Muscular diseases 0.1109** 0.0334** 0.0815** 0.3027** 0.0481**
Stomach diseases 0.0272* 0.0017 0.0065 0.0532* 0.0224
Diabetes 0.0602** 0.0170** 0.0413** 0.0549** 0.0122
Depression/anxiety 0.0701** 0.0253** 0.0764** 0.1522** 0.5364**
Risk factors 0.0032 −0.0005 0.0022 0.0461** 0.0247**
Other diseases 0.0472** 0.0188** 0.0509** 0.0779** 0.0301**
Smoking 0.0071 −0.0028 −0.0001 0.0024 0.0261**
Alcohol consumption 0.0045 −0.0118* −0.0120 0.0156 −0.0086
Physical exercise −0.0088 0.0002 −0.0114* −0.0150* −0.0123*
Underweight 0.0289 0.0326* 0.0501* 0.0297 0.0383
Overweight 0.0066 −0.0040 −0.0051 0.0041 −0.0068
Obesity-A 0.0334** 0.0013 0.0101 0.0366* 0.0085
Obesity-B 0.1182** 0.0217* 0.0427** 0.0743** 0.0199
Northern region −0.0172* 0.0004 0.0128* −0.0319* −0.0134
Southern region 0.0239** 0.0127** 0.0337** −0.0017 0.0105
Western region 0.0172* 0.0111* 0.0304** −0.0182 0.0190*
Eastern region 0.0141* 0.0059 0.0278** 0.0262* 0.0338**
n 18,444 18,444 18,443 18,438 18,433
Pseudo R2 0.319 0.284 0.301 0.259 0.309
  1. Probabilities of developing a problem
  2. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.001
  3. The reference values were the following: woman (for gender), aged under 45 years old (for age group), middle class (for social class), Spanish (for nationality), single (for marital status), no diagnosed chronic disease (for each comorbidity), no smoker, no risky drinker, sedentarism (for lifestyle habits), normal weight (for BMI) and central region (for region of residence)
  4. Description of the independent variables: Social class (Upper: university graduate or director/manager of company; Middle: self-employed person or skilled worker; Lower: semi-skilled or unskilled worker or primary sector worker). Diagnosed diseases (Respiratory diseases: asthma, chronic bronchitis and COPD; Cardiovascular diseases: heart attack, embolism and other heart diseases; Muscular diseases: osteoarthritis and lower or upper back pain; Stomach diseases: stomach ulcer; diabetes; depression/anxiety: anxiety and chronic depression; risk factors: cholesterol and high blood pressure; other diseases: other mental diseases, tumours, migraines, problems with the prostate, thyroid or skin, allergy, urinary incontinence, cataracts and cirrhosis). Lifestyle habits (smoking dairy or occasionally; being a risky drinker: drinking more than 35 alcohol units during the past week, if male, or more than 25 alcohol units, if female; physical exercise: walking at least 20 min in the past week). Region of residence (Central region: the Community of Madrid, Castilla-La Mancha and Castilla León; Northern region: Navarre, the Basque Country, Aragon and la Rioja; Southern region: Andalusia, Extremadura, Murcia, the Canary Islands, Ceuta and Melilla; Western region: Galicia, Asturias and Cantabria; Eastern region: Catalonia, the Valencian Community and the Balearic Islands)