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Table 2 Results from the four linear regression models (unstandardized regression coefficients estimated by Ordinary Least Squares)

From: The impact of obesity on health-related quality of life in Spain

  Dependent variable: Visual Analog Scale (VAS) of the EQ-5D-5L (score 0–100)
Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
Man 2.67*** 2.40*** 0.53* 0.37
45–64 years old −7.40*** −7.26*** −3.89*** −3.79***
≥65 years old −14.84*** −15.47*** −7.26*** −7.69***
Upper class 2.55*** 2.32*** 1.57*** 1.40***
Lower class −1.45*** −1.38*** −0.78* −0.78*
Foreign 3.60*** 3.30*** 2.04*** 1.83***
Married −0.44 −0.29 −0.03 0.08
Separated −2.12*** −1.95*** −0.65 −0.50
Widowed −4.54*** −4.67*** −2.02*** −2.12***
Underweight −2.20* −2.13* −2.62** −2.55**
Overweight −1.83*** −1.67*** −0.72** −0.61*
Obesity-A −4.82*** −4.57*** −2.06*** −1.92***
Obesity-B −9.30*** −8.91*** −3.92*** −3.70***
Northern region   −0.31   −0.35
Southern region   1.06   0.62
Western region   1.71***   1.17***
Eastern region   −0.65   −0.46
Smoking   −1.29***   −0.85**
Alcohol consumption   −4.70***   −4.13***
Physical exercise   −0.47   −0.75*
Respiratory diseases    −3.65*** −3.58***
Vascular diseases    −7.82*** −7.76***
Muscular diseases    −7.34*** −7.35***
Stomach diseases    −3.57*** −3.49***
Diabetes    −4.67*** −4.73***
Depression/anxiety    −9.53*** −9.32***
Risk factors    −2.52*** −2.53***
Other diseases    −3.94*** −3.97***
Constant 83.55*** 83.96*** 87.90*** 88.41***
n 18,516 18,516 18,332 18,332
R2 0.189 0.197 0.339 0.344
Adjusted R2 0.1884 0.1960 0.3381 0.3432
  1. Model 1: Socioeconomic variables + BMI; Model 2: Socioeconomic variables + BMI + Lifestyle + Region of residence; Model 3: Socioeconomic variables + BMI + Chronic diseases; Model 4: Socioeconomic variables + BMI + Chronic diseases + Lifestyle + Region of residence. The models include robust standardized errors
  2. * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01, *** p < 0.001
  3. The reference values were the following: woman (for gender), aged under 45 years old (for age group), middle class (for social class), Spanish (for nationality), single (for marital status), no diagnosed chronic disease (for each comorbidity), no smoker, no risky drinker, sedentarism (for lifestyle habits), normal weight (for BMI) and central region (for region of residence)
  4. Description of the independent variables: Social class (Upper: university graduate or director/manager of company; Middle: self-employed person or skilled worker; Lower: semi-skilled or unskilled worker or primary sector worker). Region of residence (Central region: the Community of Madrid, Castilla-La Mancha and Castilla León; Northern region: Navarre, the Basque Country, Aragon and la Rioja; Southern region: Andalusia, Extremadura, Murcia, the Canary Islands, Ceuta and Melilla; Western region: Galicia, Asturias and Cantabria; Eastern region: Catalonia, the Valencian Community and the Balearic Islands). Lifestyle habits (smoking dairy or occasionally; being a risky drinker: drinking more than 35 alcohol units during the past week, if male, or more than 25 alcohol units, if female; physical exercise: walking at least 20 min in the past week). Diagnosed diseases (Respiratory diseases: asthma, chronic bronchitis and COPD; Cardiovascular diseases: heart attack, embolism and other heart diseases; Muscular diseases: osteoarthritis and lower or upper back pain; Stomach diseases: stomach ulcer; diabetes; depression/anxiety: anxiety and chronic depression; risk factors: cholesterol and high blood pressure; other diseases: other mental diseases, tumours, migraines, problems with the prostate, thyroid or skin, allergy, urinary incontinence, cataracts and cirrhosis)