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Table 4 EQ-VAS scores by different characteristics

From: Quality of life profile of general Vietnamese population using EQ-5D-5L

  Total Female (n = 964) Male (n = 603)
  Mean SD p-value Mean SD Mean SD
Total 87.4 14.3   87.1a 14.2 88.0 14.6
Age groups
 15–24 88.5 15.8 <0.01 87.1 18.0 90.5 11.6
 25–34 88.1 14.5 88.6 12.3 87.3 17.3
 35–44 87.5 12.4 87.2 12.6 88.1 12.1
 45–54 85.8 15.0 85.3 14.5 86.9 15.8
 55–64 86.4 13.1 85.8 13.5 87.4 12.6
 65+ 83.3 13.7 82.6 12.3 83.9 16.3
Marital status
 Single 88.2 16.3 <0.01 87.6 16.9 88.9 15.7
 Live with spouse/partner 87.2 13.1 86.9 12.9 87.7 13.4
 Divorce/Separate/Widow 82.3 18.5 85.3 16.2 77.3 21.8
Education
 Secondary school or less 86.3 12.3 <0.01 85.1 12.2 88.2 12.3
 High school 87.2 13.4 87.3 12.3 87.2 15.1
 Undergraduate 88.1 14.9 87.5 15.5 89.2 13.9
 Postgraduate 83.5 20.1 85.8 14.5 81.7 23.8
Occupation
 Student 88.0 16.0 <0.01 86.4 18.4 90.6 10.6
 Blue-collar 88.0 12.9 87.4 12.4 88.6 13.4
 White-collar 89.2 14.0 88.7 13.4 90.1 15.0
 Retired 83.5 12.5 84.5 11.4 82.7 13.8
 Housework 86.1 13.4 86.5 12.4 79.7 23.4
 Unemployed 84.1 15.4 86.2 11.6 82.7 17.7
 Others (freelancers, farmers, etc.) 85.6 16.0 85.4 15.7 85.7 16.3
Income quintiles
 Poorest 86.4 13.3 0.24 86.2 13.6 86.9 12.9
 Poor 86.2 16.7 86.1 17.1 86.6 16.1
 Middle 88.7 10.8 88.2 11.4 89.8 9.3
 Rich 87.2 15.8 88.2 10.3 85.9 21.0
 Richest 86.9 17.7 86.6 17.7 87.1 17.7
Living locations
 Rural 90.2 10.0 <0.01 88.5 10.9 92.2 8.4
 Urban 87.0 14.9 86.9 14.6 87.2 15.4
Having acute symptoms in the last 4 weeks
 Yes 75.8 17.9 <0.01 73.1 18.4 85.5 12.2
 No 87.7 14.1 87.5 13.8 88.0 14.7
Having chronic diseases in the last 3 months
 Yes 78.1 18.5 <0.01 79.8 15.1 75.0 23.1
 No 88.0 13.8 87.6 14.0 88.8 13.6
Number of health issues
 0 88.3 13.6 <0.01 87.9 13.7 88.9 13.6
 1 78.5 18.0 79.4 15.6 76.7 21.9
 2 70.5 17.1 69.4 18.2 75.0 21.2
Using health services in the last 12 months
 Yes 82.3 19.2 <0.01 82.1 18.7 82.5 20.0
 No 88.7 12.6 88.2 12.7 89.6 12.3
  1. a p-value = 0.04 (Mann-Whitney test): compare the difference of EQ-VAS score between male and female