Skip to main content

Table 3 EQ-5D-5L utility scores by different characteristics

From: Quality of life profile of general Vietnamese population using EQ-5D-5L

  Total Female Male
  Mean SD p-value Mean SD Mean SD
Total 0.91 0.15   0.91a 0.14 0.92 0.15
Age groups
 15–24 0.92 0.14 <0.01 0.92 0.14 0.92 0.15
 25–34 0.92 0.13 0.92 0.14 0.94 0.12
 35–44 0.91 0.14 0.90 0.14 0.91 0.14
 45–54 0.90 0.17 0.90 0.16 0.90 0.20
 55–64 0.88 0.16 0.87 0.16 0.89 0.15
 65+ 0.81 0.25 0.83 0.16 0.84 0.24
Marital status
 Single 0.92 0.15 <0.01 0.92 0.14 0.93 0.15
 Live with spouse/partner 0.91 0.14 0.90 0.14 0.91 0.14
 Divorce/Separate/Widow 0.84 0.20 0.86 0.18 0.80 0.23
Education
 Secondary school or less 0.90 0.16 0.91 0.89 0.16 0.92 0.16
 High school 0.91 0.14 0.90 0.15 0.93 0.14
 Undergraduate 0.91 0.14 0.91 0.14 0.91 0.15
 Postgraduate 0.90 0.15 0.89 0.16 0.90 0.14
Occupation
 Student 0.90 0.15 <0.01 0.90 0.16 0.90 0.16
 Blue-collar 0.93 0.14 0.91 0.14 0.94 0.13
 White-collar 0.92 0.14 0.92 0.13 0.93 0.15
 Retired 0.85 0.16 0.86 0.16 0.85 0.17
 Housework 0.88 0.16 0.88 0.16 0.84 0.18
 Unemployed 0.89 0.18 0.88 0.18 0.90 0.18
 Others (freelancers, farmers, etc.) 0.94 0.12 0.94 0.11 0.94 0.14
Income quintiles
 Poorest 0.88 0.17 <0.01 0.88 0.17 0.89 0.16
 Poor 0.90 0.15 0.89 0.14 0.91 0.17
 Middle 0.92 0.14 0.91 0.14 0.92 0.13
 Rich 0.93 0.11 0.94 0.10 0.93 0.12
 Richest 0.94 0.15 0.94 0.10 0.94 0.17
Living locations
 Rural 0.91 0.13 0.89 0.89 0.15 0.94 0.11
 Urban 0.91 0.15 0.91 0.14 0.91 0.16
Having acute symptoms in the past 4 weeks
 Yes 0.87 0.17 0.09 0.85 0.18 0.94 0.10
 No 0.91 0.15 0.91 0.14 0.92 0.15
Having chronic diseases in the past 3 months
 Yes 0.83 0.19 <0.01 0.82 0.18 0.83 0.20
 No 0.91 0.15 0.91 0.14 0.92 0.14
Number of health issues
 0 0.92 0.15 <0.01 0.91 0.14 0.92 0.14
 1 0.85 0.18 0.85 0.17 0.84 0.19
 2 0.78 0.25 0.72 0.25 1.00b 0.00
Using health services in the past 12 months
 Yes 0.91 0.15 0.07 0.91 0.14 0.92 0.14
 No 0.89 0.16 0.89 0.16 0.91 0.16
  1. a p-value = 0.03 (Mann-Whitney test): compare the difference of utility score between male and female
  2. b There are only two males in this category