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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the study population in relation to sex

From: Is the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) a valid measure in a general population 65–80 years old? A psychometric evaluation study

  Total (n = 6659) Women (n = 3436) Men (n = 3223) p-value
Age, M (SD) 71.2 (4.5) 71.3 (4.5) 71.1 (4.5) 0.328a
Married/Cohabiting, n (%) 4611 (70.5) 2107 (62.4) 2504 (79.0) < 0.001b
Education, n (%)     < 0.001b
 Incomplete primary school 405 (6.1) 196 (5.9) 209 (6.6)  
 Primary school 3189 (47.9) 1723 (51.4) 1466 (46.5)  
 High School/College 1662 (24.9) 765 (22.8) 897 (28.5)  
 University 1243 (18.7) 665 (19.9) 578 (18.4)  
Still Working, n (%) 579 (9.2) 224 (6.9) 355 (11.6) < 0.001b
Morbidity, n (%)
 Diabetes 845 (16.4) 354 (13.6) 491 (19.2) < 0.001b
 Asthma 558 (11.2) 327 (12.8) 231 (9.5) 0.001b
 Hypertension 2924 (48.3) 1520 (46.6) 1476 (50.0) < 0.001b
Pharmacological treatment, n (%)
 Antidepressant medication 392 (8.0) 269 (10.8) 123 (5.1) < 0.001b
 Anxiolytic medication 340 (7.0) 222 (4.6) 118 (2.4) < 0.001b
 Sleeping pills 946 (18.8) 659 (25.2) 287 (11.8) < 0.001b
Visits last three months, n (%)
 Psychologist 39 (0.8) 28 (1.1) 11 (0.4) 0.036b
 Welfare officer 55 (0.6) 39 (1.4) 16 (0.6) 0.014b
HADS score, Mdn (q1-q3)
 Anxiety 2 (1–5) 3 (1–6) 2 (0–4) < 0.001c
 Depression 3 (1–5) 2 (1–5) 3 (1–5) < 0.05c
HADS score ≥ 8, n (%)
 Anxiety 697 (10.7) 476 (14.1) 221 (7.0) < 0.001b
 Depression 641 (9.8) 307 (9.1) 334 (10.6) < 0.05b
  1. HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale
  2. aIndependent sample t-test
  3. bPearson chi-square test
  4. cMann-Whitney U test