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Table 2 Bivariate analysis between the factors and the CPQ11–14 scores

From: The factors that influence the oral health-related quality of life in 12-year-old children: baseline study of a longitudinal research

   OS (ISF:8) FL (ISF:8) EWB (ISF:8) SWB (ISF:8) CPQ11–14 total score (ISF:8) OS (RSF:8) FL (RSF:8) EWB (RSF:8) SWB (RSF:8) CPQ11–14 total score (RSF:8)
N Mean (SD) Median(IQR) P1 P2 Mean (SD) Median (IQR) P1 P2 Mean (SD) Median (IQR) P1 P2 Mean (SD) Median (IQR) P1 P2 Mean (SD) Median (IQR) P1 P2 Mean (SD) Median (IQR) P1 P2 Mean (SD) Median (IQR) P1 P2 Mean (SD) Median (IQR) P1 P2 Mean (SD) Median (IQR) P1 P2 Mean (SD) Median (IQR) P1 P2
Gender
 F 305 3.26(1.29) 3.00(2) 0.000** 0.000** 1.19(1.25) 1.00(2) 0.148 0.329 1.63(1.50) 2.00(3) 0.110 0.061 1.10(1.24) 1.00(2) 0.842 0.786 7.19(3.56) 7.00(5) 0.279 0.372 2.66(1.39) 3.00(2) 0.108 0.110 1.21(1.20) 1.00(2) 0.232 0.096 1.78(1.44) 2.00(2) 0.026* 0.013* 1.42(1.45) 1.00(2) 0.657 0.995 7.08(3.79) 7.00(5) 0.646 0.550
 M 284 3.65(1.37) 4.00(2) 1.35(1.44) 1.00(2) 1.43(1.53) 1.00(2) 1.08(1.25) 1.00(2) 7.51(3.77) 7.00(5) 2.85(1.42) 3.00(2) 1.09(1.27) 1.00(2) 1.51(1.47) 1.00(3) 1.48(1.60) 1.00(3) 6.93(3.92) 7.00(5)
 Total 589 3.45(1.34) 4.00(1)    1.26(1.35) 1.00(2)    1.54(1.51) 1.00(2)    1.10(1.24) 1.00(2)    7.34(3.66) 7.00(5)    2.75(1.41) 3.00(2)    1.15(1.23) 1.00(2)    1.65(1.46) 1.00(3)    1.45(1.52) 1.00(2)    7.01(3.85) 7.00(5)   
Father’s education
 Primary school graduate or below 88 3.24(1.47) 3.00(2) 0.016* 0.019* 1.27(1.44) 1.00(2) 0.796 0.969 1.34(1.57) 1.00(2) 0.295 0.200 1.03(1.19) 1.00(2) 0.717 0.889 6.89(3.78) 7.00(5) 0.218 0.177 2.60(1.47) 3.00(2) 0.043* 0.029* 1.33(1.36) 1.00(2) 0.139 0.119 1.48(1.45) 1.00(3) 0.471 0.387 1.35(1.31) 1.00(2) 0.779 0.947 6.76(3.97) 6.50(5) 0.468 0.475
 Secondary school graduate or below 406 3.55(1.32) 4.00(1) 1.24(1.29) 1.00(2) 1.60(1.52) 1.00(3) 1.12(1.29) 1.00(2) 7.52(3.64) 7.00(5) 2.85(1.38) 3.00(2) 1.16(1.21) 1.00(2) 1.67(1.47) 2.00(3) 1.46(1.52) 1.00(2) 7.14(3.88) 7.00(6)
 College graduate or above 95 3.19(1.26) 3.00(2) 1.35(1.52) 1.00(2) 1.45(1.44) 1.00(2) 1.03(1.11) 1.00(2) 7.02(3.61) 7.00(6) 2.48(1.42) 2.00(1) 0.97(1.22) 1.00(1) 1.72(1.37) 1.00(2) 1.51(1.73) 1.00(3) 6.67(3.58) 7.00(5)
Mother’s education
 Primary school graduate or below 79 3.61(1.59) 4.00(2) 0.381 0.179 1.49(1.42) 1.00(2) 0.246 0.262 2.00(1.78) 2.00(3) 0.014* 0.049* 1.19(1.20) 1.00(2) 0.644 0.542 8.29(4.24) 8.00(6) 0.044* 0.079 3.13(1.45) 3.00(2) 0.010* 0.003** 1.59(1.59) 1.00(3) 0.002** 0.028* 1.95(1.54) 2.00(2) 0.120 0.117 1.84(1.54) 2.00(2) 0.045* 0.026* 8.51(4.51) 8.00(7) 0.001** 0.005**
 Secondary school graduate or below 438 3.44(1.29) 4.00(1) 1.22(1.31) 1.00(2) 1.47(1.48) 1.00(2) 1.09(1.27) 1.00(2) 7.22(3.57) 7.00(4) 2.74(1.41) 3.00(2) 1.10(1.16) 1.00(2) 1.59(1.45) 1.00(3) 1.37(1.50) 1.00(2) 6.80(3.72) 7.00(5)
 College graduate or above 72 3.31(1.35) 3.00(2) 1.29(1.51) 1.00(2) 1.46(1.29) 1.50(2) 1.00(1.15) 1.00(2) 7.06(3.44) 7.00(5) 2.44(1.29) 2.00(1) 0.99(1.14) 1.00(2) 1.69(1.34) 2.00(2) 1.49(1.57) 1.00(3) 6.61(3.49) 7.00(5)
Household income
 Below HK$10,000 145 3.35(1.37) 3.00(2) 0.143 0.058 1.16(1.32) 1.00(2) 0.443 0.314 1.48(1.55) 1.00(2) 0.480 0.625 1.14(1.33) 1.00(2) 0.555 0.778 7.13(3.68) 7.00(6) 0.258 0.216 2.63(1.37) 3.00(2) 0.106 0.086 1.20(1.21) 1.00(2) 0.506 0.501 1.60(1.39) 1.00(3) 0.676 0.795 1.48(1.43) 1.00(2) 0.586 0.353 6.91(4.03) 7.00(6) 0.195 0.214
 HK$10,001-HK$20,000 213 3.61(1.32) 4.00(1) 1.24(1.29) 1.00(2) 1.59(1.53) 1.00(3) 1.17(1.33) 1.00(2) 7.61(3.75) 7.00(5) 2.88(1.41) 3.00(2) 1.15(1.21) 1.00(2) 1.70(1.58) 2.00(3) 1.49(1.56) 1.00(2) 7.23(3.75) 7.00(4)
 HK$20,001-HK$30,000 92 3.30(1.37) 3.00(2) 1.26(1.46) 1.00(2) 1.47(1.45) 1.00(2) 1.04(1.09) 1.00(2) 7.08(3.67) 7.00(6) 2.83(1.44) 3.00(2) 1.07(1.26) 1.00(2) 1.67(1.40) 1.50(3) 1.29(1.61) 1.00(2) 6.86(3.93) 7.00(5)
 HK$30,001-HK$40,000 62 3.58(1.31) 4.00(1) 1.55(1.35) 1.00(2) 1.81(1.68) 2.00(3) 1.03(1.16) 1.00(2) 7.97(3.21) 8.00(5) 2.89(1.46) 3.00(2) 1.35(1.39) 1.00(2) 1.77(1.44) 2.00(2) 1.65(1.53) 2.00(3) 7.66(3.97) 7.50(5)
 Over HK$40,001 77 3.26(1.34) 3.00(2) 1.30(1.43) 1.00(2) 1.38(1.35) 1.00(2) 0.91(1.07) 1.00(2) 6.84(3.69) 6.00(6) 2.43(1.34) 2.00(2) 1.01(1.18) 1.00(2) 1.45(1.30) 1.00(3) 1.31(1.48) 1.00(2) 6.21(3.48) 5.00(6)
Periodontal status
 CPI score = 0 80 3.34(1.40) 3.00(2) 0.428 0.172 1.06(1.22) 1.00(2) 0.149 0.174 1.21(1.38) 1.00(2) 0.039* 0.037* 0.84(1.01) 1.00(1) 0.020* 0.073 6.45(3.58) 6.00(4) 0.019* 0.008** 2.68(1.42) 3.00(2) 0.598 0.530 1.09(1.28) 1.00(2) 0.602 0.426 1.40(1.40) 1.00(2) 0.100 0.087 1.34(1.42) 1.00(2) 0.478 0.541 6.50(3.63) 6.00(5) 0.207 0.196
 CPI score > 0 509 3.47(1.33) 4.00(1) 1.30(1.37) 1.00(2) 1.59(1.53) 1.00(3) 1.14(1.27) 1.00(2) 7.49(3.66) 7.00(5) 2.76(1.41) 3.00(2) 1.17(1.23) 1.00(2) 1.69(1.46) 2.00(3) 1.47(1.54) 1.00(2) 7.08(3.88) 7.00(5)
Caries experience
  < SiC Index value 499 3.43(1.34) 4.00(1) 0.570 0.713 1.24(1.35) 1.00(2) 0.229 0.125 1.52(1.52) 1.00(2) 0.418 0.297 1.05(1.20) 1.00(2) 0.048* 0.078 7.24(3.66) 7.00(6) 0.098 0.098 2.72(1.41) 3.00(2) 0.213 0.233 1.15(1.26) 1.00(2) 0.774 0.382 1.61(1.44) 1.00(3) 0.143 0.157 1.38(1.51) 1.00(2) 0.014* 0.008** 6.87(3.82) 7.00(5) 0.038* 0.037*
  > =SiC Index value 90 3.52(1.35) 4.00(1) 1.42(1.32) 1.00(2) 1.66(1.47) 2.00(3) 1.33(1.44) 1.00(2) 7.93(3.66) 8.00(5) 2.92(1.39) 3.00(2) 1.19(1.08) 1.00(2) 1.86(1.53) 2.00(3) 1.81(1.56) 2.00(3) 7.78(3.92) 7.50(6)
IOTN (DHC) treatment need
 No need 321 3.46(1.31) 4.00(1) 0.513 0.710 1.13(1.26) 1.00(2) 0.024* 0.047* 1.48(1.47) 1.00(2) 0.368 0.273 0.98(1.16) 1.00(2) 0.018* 0.052 7.05(3.46) 7.00(5) 0.078 0.159 2.72(1.38) 3.00(2) 0.783 0.708 1.12(1.18) 1.00(2) 0.617 0.293 1.55(1.36) 1.00(3) 0.200 0.381 1.44(1.53) 1.00(2) 0.482 0.307 6.83(3.63) 7.00(5) 0.335 0.380
 Borderline need 106 3.55(1.40) 4.00(1) 1.36(1.36) 1.00(2) 1.50(1.64) 1.00(3) 1.09(1.24) 1.00(2) 7.50(3.62) 7.00(5) 2.77(1.45) 3.00(2) 1.14(1.46) 1.00(2) 1.74(1.48) 2.00(3) 1.32(1.56) 1.00(2) 6.97(3.97) 7.00(5)
 Definite need 162 3.36(1.38) 4.00(1) 1.47(1.48) 1.00(2) 1.68(1.51) 2.00(3) 1.32(1.38) 1.00(2) 7.83(4.03) 8.00(5) 2.81(1.43) 3.00(2) 1.23(1.17) 1.00(2) 1.78(1.60) 2.00(3) 1.55(1.49) 2.00(3) 7.38(4.17) 7.00(6)
IOTN (AC) treatment need
 No need 469 3.45(1.32) 4.00(1) 0.153 0.160 1.23(1.37) 1.00(2) 0.514 0.272 1.51(1.51) 1.00(2) 0.265 0.295 1.01(1.21) 1.00(2) 0.003** 0.003** 7.20(3.66) 7.00(6) 0.092 0.060 2.72(1.38) 3.00(2) 0.208 0.167 1.14(1.21) 1.00(2) 0.602 0.599 1.61(1.45) 1.00(3) 0.349 0.339 1.43(1.54) 1.00(2) 0.556 0.440 6.90(3.83) 7.00(5) 0.161 0.187
 Borderline need 89 3.57(1.47) 4.00(1) 1.39(1.28) 1.00(2) 1.76(1.57) 2.00(3) 1.39(1.25) 1.00(2) 8.12(3.60) 8.00(6) 2.98(1.53) 3.00(2) 1.27(1.34) 1.00(2) 1.85(1.50) 2.00(3) 1.61(1.48) 2.00(2) 7.71(4.06) 7.00(6)
 Definite need 31 3.03(1.28) 3.00(2) 1.39(1.31) 1.00(2) 1.35(1.33) 1.00(2) 1.55(1.55) 1.00(2) 7.32(3.65) 8.00(5) 2.55(1.31) 3.00(2) 1.06(1.32) 1.00(2) 1.65(1.43) 2.00(3) 1.35(1.31) 1.00(2) 6.61(3.33) 6.00(5)
DAI
 Normal or minor malocclusion- no treatment need or slight need 312 3.41(1.32) 4.00(2) 0.875 0.836 1.13(1.28) 1.00(2) 0.060 0.074 1.43(1.47) 1.00(2) 0.093 0.139 0.92(1.08) 1.00(2) 0.000** 0.002** 6.89(3.49) 7.00(5) 0.009** 0.027* 2.64(1.36) 3.00(2) 0.147 0.203 1.11(1.20) 1.00(2) 0.701 0.700 1.53(1.40) 1.00(3) 0.115 0.163 1.35(1.46) 1.00(2) 0.342 0.366 6.63(3.70) 6.00(5) 0.063 0.083
 Definite malocclusion -treatment selective 143 3.50(1.31) 4.00(1) 1.35(1.35) 1.00(2) 1.55(1.49) 1.00(2) 1.22(1.39) 1.00(2) 7.62(3.46) 7.00(5) 2.81(1.43) 3.00(2) 1.20(1.34) 1.00(2) 1.71(1.35) 2.00(3) 1.51(1.67) 1.00(2) 7.24(3.76) 7.00(5)
 Severe malocclusion -treatment highly desirable 87 3.51(1.41) 4.00(1) 1.45(1.46) 1.00(3) 1.90(1.69) 2.00(3) 1.17(1.20) 1.00(2) 8.02(4.04) 8.00(5) 3.00(1.46) 3.00(2) 1.26(1.24) 1.00(2) 1.80(1.68) 2.00(3) 1.67(1.64) 2.00(3) 7.74(4.30) 7.00(6)
 Very severe (handicapping) malocclusion-treatment mandatory 47 3.45(1.50) 3.00(1) 1.55(1.50) 1.00(2) 1.53(1.47) 1.00(2) 1.74(1.59) 2.00(3) 8.28(4.29) 8.00(6) 2.87(1.48) 3.00(2) 1.09(1.14) 1.00(2) 1.98(1.60) 2.00(3) 1.51(1.18) 2.00(2) 7.45(4.03) 8.00(6)
ICON treatment need
 No 383 3.43(1.32) 4.00(1) 0.668 0.451 1.19(1.36) 1.00(2) 0.059 0.015* 1.50(1.52) 1.00(2) 0.442 0.348 1.01(1.17) 1.00(2) 0.031* 0.042* 7.13(3.68) 7.00(5) 0.053 0.019* 2.69(1.38) 3.00(2) 0.124 0.119 1.14(1.23) 1.00(2) 0.770 0.754 1.62(1.46) 1.00(3) 0.499 0.414 1.38(1.49) 1.00(2) 0.121 0.122 6.83(3.86) 7.00(5) 0.127 0.087
 Yes 206 3.48(1.39) 4.00(1) 1.41(1.31) 1.00(2) 1.60(1.50) 1.00(3) 1.25(1.35) 1.00(2) 7.74(3.60) 8.00(5) 2.87(1.46) 3.00(2) 1.17(1.25) 1.00(2) 1.70(1.44) 2.00(3) 1.58(1.57) 1.00(2) 7.33(3.82) 7.00(5)
ICON complexity
 Easy 173 3.42(1.31) 3.00(1) 0.546 0.482 1.10(1.31) 1.00(2) 0.433 0.262 1.48(1.51) 1.00(2) 0.822 0.812 0.98(1.17) 1.00(2) 0.077 0.108 6.98(3.74) 7.00(5) 0.429 0.295 2.69(1.35) 3.00(2) 0.091 0.085 1.16(1.29) 1.00(2) 0.634 0.736 1.44(1.40) 1.00(2) 0.213 0.220 1.42(1.48) 1.00(2) 0.886 0.755 6.71(3.94) 6.00(6) 0.216 0.221
 Mild 292 3.47(1.30) 4.00(1) 1.32(1.40) 1.00(2) 1.53(1.53) 1.00(2) 1.06(1.25) 1.00(2) 7.37(3.60) 7.00(5) 2.72(1.43) 3.00(2) 1.15(1.17) 1.00(2) 1.73(1.47) 2.00(3) 1.44(1.59) 1.00(2) 7.03(3.82) 7.00(5)
 Moderate 67 3.63(1.55) 4.00(2) 1.33(1.33) 1.00(2) 1.73(1.62) 2.00(3) 1.27(1.23) 1.00(2) 7.96(3.98) 9.00(5) 3.19(1.36) 3.00(2) 1.33(1.45) 1.00(2) 1.82(1.57) 2.00(3) 1.63(1.43) 2.00(3) 7.97(4.01) 8.00(6)
 Difficult 33 3.30(1.49) 3.00(2) 1.39(1.20) 1.00(2) 1.58(1.23) 2.00(2) 1.30(1.29) 1.00(2) 7.58(3.08) 8.00(5) 2.67(1.47) 3.00(2) 1.03(1.10) 1.00(2) 1.58(1.25) 2.00(3) 1.39(1.52) 1.00(2) 6.67(3.36) 7.00(6)
 Very difficult 24 3.13(1.30) 3.00(2) 1.46(1.25) 1.00(2) 1.42(1.41) 1.00(3) 1.63(1.58) 1.50(3) 7.63(3.72) 7.50(4) 2.50(1.38) 2.50(3) 0.92(1.18) 0.50(2) 1.83(1.47) 2.00(3) 1.33(1.27) 1.00(2) 6.58(3.43) 7.00(5)
PAR
 Almost ideal occlusion 122 3.43(1.40) 4.00(1) 0.963 0.993 1.07(1.21) 1.00(2) 0.025* 0.007** 1.45(1.39) 1.00(2) 0.671 0.892 0.99(1.18) 1.00(2) 0.134 0.264 6.94(3.63) 7.00(5) 0.229 0.194 2.66(1.42) 3.00(2) 0.236 0.230 1.16(1.12) 1.00(2) 0.887 0.853 1.51(1.42) 1.00(2) 0.481 0.471 1.34(1.54) 1.00(2) 0.691 0.576 6.68(3.76) 6.50(5) 0.547 0.608
 Acceptable occlusion 254 3.46(1.25) 4.00(1) 1.20(1.41) 1.00(2) 1.59(1.61) 1.00(3) 1.03(1.17) 1.00(2) 7.29(3.69) 7.00(6) 2.69(1.37) 3.00(2) 1.18(1.32) 1.00(2) 1.70(1.45) 1.00(3) 1.48(1.52) 1.00(3) 7.04(3.81) 7.00(5)
 Malocclusion 213 3.44(1.43) 4.00(1) 1.46(1.33) 1.00(2) 1.52(1.47) 1.00(2) 1.23(1.36) 1.00(2) 7.64(3.64) 7.00(5) 2.88(1.44) 3.00(2) 1.12(1.20) 1.00(2) 1.67(1.48) 2.00(3) 1.48(1.52) 1.00(2) 7.15(3.96) 7.00(6)
  1. P1: p value of parametric tests; P2: p value of nonparametric tests; *: p < 0.05, **p < 0.01
  2. Parametric tests: comparison between two samples used the independent samples t test; others used the one-way ANOVA; nonparametric tests: comparison between two samples used the Mann-Whitney U test; others used the Kruskal-Wallis H test
  3. SiC Index Significant Caries Index