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Table 1 Characteristics of study subjects

From: Health-related quality of life and health preference of Chinese patients with diabetes mellitus managed in primary care and secondary care setting: decrements associated with individual complication and number of complications

Variables All study subjects Without diabetic complication Heart Diseases Stroke Diabetic nephropathy ESRD NPDR/pre-PDR STDR
(N = 1275) (N = 757) (N = 113) (N = 72) (N = 233) (N = 75) (N = 114) (N = 66)
Age (years) 64.84 ± 10.26 63.38 ± 9.52 68.28 ± 8.54 70.22 ± 10.37 69.80 ± 10.09 65.17 ± 10.94 63.22 ± 10.52 63.96 ± 10.72
Male 46.75% 41.16% 63.72% 58.33% 46.78% 66.67% 60.53% 66.67%
Current smoker 19.85% 22.32% 16.35% 25.81% 13.84% 9.09% 10.19% 12.00%
Duration of DM (years) 9.35 ± 7.49 7.76 ± 6.27 14.26 ± 9.78 10.12 ± 8.25 11.08 ± 8.58 14.31 ± 16.89 17.08 ± 9.41 14.52 ± 9.61
SBP (mmHg) 138.30 ± 17.01 138.85 ± 16.83 133.73 ± 16.00 136.62 ± 16.27 137.79 ± 17.97 135.46 ± 16.89 136.02 ± 18.40 135.38 ± 19.15
DBP(mmHg) 76.38 ± 11.11 77.94 ± 10.18 71.87 ± 12.41 74.11 ± 10.85 73.92 ± 12.02 66.44 ± 11.13 73.00 ± 12.13 67.66 ± 12.01
HbA1c (%) 7.37 ± 1.25 7.38 ± 1.21 7.49 ± 1.32 7.10 ± 1.18 7.24 ± 1.06 7.06 ± 1.18 7.95 ± 1.30 6.92 ± 1.31
TC (mmol/L) 4.76 ± 1.36 4.91 ± 0.91 3.95 ± 0.91 4.51 ± 0.91 4.57 ± 1.05 4.32 ± 1.21 4.60 ± 3.27 4.31 ± 1.37
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.30 ± 0.37 1.35 ± 0.36 1.09 ± 0.32 1.35 ± 0.42 1.24 ± 0.35 1.16 ± 0.37 1.17 ± 0.40 1.15 ± 0.40
LDL-C (mmol/L) 2.74 ± 0.86 2.87 ± 0.81 2.12 ± 0.78 2.56 ± 0.77 2.62 ± 0.92 2.40 ± 0.89 2.36 ± 0.94 2.34 ± 0.95
Triglyceride (mmol/L) 1.56 ± 1.03 1.53 ± 0.91 1.69 ± 1.21 1.36 ± 1.16 1.65 ± 0.98 1.88 ± 1.85 1.67 ± 1.19 1.91 ± 2.29
Marital status         
 Single 6.27% 5.01% 6.19% 5.56% 6.87% 8.00% 12.28% 7.84%
 Married 73.65% 75.99% 71.68% 65.28% 67.38% 78.67% 74.56% 82.35%
 Divorce/Separated 5.18% 5.28% 4.42% 8.33% 5.58% 4.00% 4.39% 3.92%
 Widow/Widower 14.90% 13.72% 17.70% 20.83% 20.17% 9.33% 8.77% 5.88%
Individual monthly income (HKD)        
 < 2000 59.14% 60.16% 43.36% 62.50% 65.24% 68.00% 35.96% 72.55%
 2000–14,999 31.45% 32.45% 40.71% 30.56% 25.32% 22.67% 42.11% 17.65%
 15,000–29,999 6.75% 5.28% 14.16% 4.17% 6.44% 5.33% 13.16% 5.88%
 > 29,999 2.67% 2.11% 1.77% 2.78% 3.00% 4.00% 8.77% 3.92%
  1. Figures are expressed as Mean ± SD or % as appropriate
  2. DBP diastolic blood pressure, DM diabetes mellitus, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin A1c, HDL-C high density lipid cholesterol, LDL-C low density lipid cholesterol, SBP systolic blood pressure, TC total cholesterol. ESRD end-stage renal disease, NPDR non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, PDR proliferative diabetic retinopathy, STDR sight-threatening diabetic retinopathy