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Table 1 Socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of the study participants

From: Dietary habits, oral impact on daily performance and type 2 diabetes: a matched case-control study from Sudan

Variable T2D cases (n = 149) Controls (n = 298) P value
Age, mean (SD)a 52.30 (10.41) 52.30 (10.40) 1.00
Gender, % (n)b    
 Men 39.6 (59) 39.3 (117) 0.95
 Women 60.4 (90) 60.7 (181)  
Marital status, % (n)b    
 Married 92.0 (137) 95.0 (282) 0.21
 Unmarried 8.0 (12) 5.0 (15)  
Education, % (n)b    
 Illiterate 26.2 (39) 30.5 (91) 0.34
 Literate 73.8 (110) 69.5 (207)  
Employment, % (n)b    
 Employed 35.6 (53) 36.9 (110) 0.78
 Unemployed 64.4 (96) 63.1 (188)  
Ethnic group, % (n)b    
 Afro-Arab 75.3 (110) 78.6 (232) 0.43
 African 24.7 (36) 21.4 (63)  
Consumption of milk, % (n)b    
 High 67.1 (100) 83.2 (248) <0.01
 Low 32.9 (49) 16.8 (50)  
Consumption of meat, % (n)b    
 High 40.3 (60) 60.7 (181) <0.01
 Low 59.7 (89) 39.3 (117)  
Consumption of eggs, % (n)b    
 High 72.5 (108) 61.4 (183) 0.02
 Low 27.5 (41) 38.6 (115)  
Consumption of vegetables, % (n)b    
 High 85.2 (127) 86.6 (258) 0.70
 Low 14.8 (22) 13.4 (40)  
Consumption of fruits, % (n)b    
 High 36.9 (55) 22.8 (68) <0.01
 Low 63.1 (94) 77.2 (230)  
Consumption of sweets, % (n)b    
 High 23.5 (35) 49.3 (147) <0.01
 Low 76.5 (114) 50.7 (151)  
Consumption of bread, % (n)b    
 High 78.4 (116) 79.9 (236) 0.84
 Low 21.6 (32) 20.8 (62)  
Dental plaque index, % (n)b    
 High 75.2 (112) 36.9 (110) <0.01
 Low 24.8 (37) 63.1 (188)  
Bleeding on probing, % (n)b    
 High 89.3 (133) 31.9 (95) <0.01
 Low 10.7 (16) 68.1 (203)  
Tooth mobility, % (n)b    
 Yes 91.3 (136) 53.0 (158) <0.01
 No 8.7 (13) 47.0 (140)  
Periodontal probing depth, % (n)b    
  > 4 mm 45.0 (67) 14.8 (44) <0.01
  ≤ 4 mm 55.0 (82) 85.2 (254)  
Missing teeth, % (n)b    
  ≤ 21 teeth 25.5 (38) 9.4 (28) <0.01
  > 21 teeth 74.5 (111) 90.6 (270)  
DMFT, % (n)b    
 Yes 94.6 (141) 95.6 (285) 0.81
 No 5.4 (8) 4.4 (13)  
Root caries, % (n)b    
 Yes 52.3 (78) 39.3 (117) <0.01
 No 47.7 (72) 60.7 (182)  
OIDP, % (n)b    
 OIDP =0 64.4 (96) 86.2 (257) <0.01
 OIDP >0 35.6 (53) 13.8 (41)  
  1. aIndependent sample-T test
  2. bChi-square test