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Table 2 Examples of cognitive interview probes

From: Developing a proxy version of the Adult social care outcome toolkit (ASCOT)

• Which answer would you choose? Why?  
• Was it easy or difficult to answer this question?  
• I noticed you were spending some time with that question – can you tell me what you were thinking about?  
• You chose X. Why? How does X differ from Y or Z?  
• I noticed you were looking here, what were you thinking?  
• What does ‘[phrase or word from questionnaire]’ mean to you? Would you be able to explain that in your own words?  
• You answered differently for how you think the person you know would answer, why is that?  
• Could this question be made clearer? If so, in what way?