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Table 4 Association between Quality of Life domains with psychological status scales

From: Psychological status and quality of life among primary caregivers of individuals with mental illness: a hospital based study

  Quality of Life (QOL) four domains
Physical health Psychological Social relationships Environmental
Beta coefficient 95% CI p value Beta coefficient 95% CI p value Beta coefficient 95% CI p value Beta coefficient 95% CI p value
PHQ-9 (cut-off score > 10) −3.27 −4.77 −1.77 <.001 −0.98 −1.84 −0.12 .026 −1.71 −3 −0.42 .010 −2.2 −3.73 −0.67 .005
GAD-7 (cut-off score > 10) −0.84 −2.54 0.86 .334 −0.27 −1.25 0.71 .589 −1.87 −3.34 −0.41 .013 −1.62 −3.36 0.11 .067
Age Group
 21–34 −0.01 −2.02 1.99 .990 0.85 −0.31 2 .151 −0.73 −2.45 1 .408 0.99 −1.06 3.03 .343
 35–49 −0.39 −2.21 1.43 .674 0.88 −0.17 1.93 .100 −0.58 −2.14 0.99 .471 0.8 −1.06 2.66 .397
 50–64 0.77 −0.69 2.24 .300 0.49 −0.36 1.33 .261 −0.41 −1.67 0.85 .525 1.18 −0.31 2.68 .121
 65+ Reference                
Ethnicity
 Malay −0.06 −1.18 1.06 .918 −0.23 −0.87 0.41 .484 0.54 −0.42 1.51 .268 −0.18 −1.32 0.96 .755
 Indian 0.4 −0.75 1.55 .496 0.36 −0.3 1.03 .282 0.33 −0.66 1.33 .511 −0.22 −1.4 0.96 .709
 Others 0.38 −3.22 3.99 .835 1.56 −0.51 3.64 .140 1.58 −1.52 4.69 .317 −0.79 −4.47 2.9 .674
 Chinese Reference                
Gender
 Men 0.33 −0.68 1.35 .520 0.38 −0.2 0.97 .197 −0.11 −0.98 0.77 .812 −0.09 −1.12 0.95 .869
 Women Reference                
Marital Status
 Single 0.04 −1.38 1.47 .951 −1.82 −2.64 −1 <.001 −0.56 −1.78 0.67 .375 0.56 −0.9 2.02 .449
 Widowed 0.2 −2.02 2.42 .857 −1.48 −2.79 −0.17 .027 0.86 −1.06 2.77 .379 1.03 −1.24 3.3 .372
 Divorced/Separated 2.26 −0.15 4.67 .066 −1.19 −2.58 0.2 .093 −0.05 −2.13 2.03 .961 1.58 −0.88 4.05 .208
 Married Reference                
Education
 No formal/Primary −3.01 −4.75 −1.26 .001 −0.48 −1.48 0.53 .354 −3.02 −4.52 −1.51 .000 −3.39 −5.17 −1.6 <.001
 Secondary −1.59 −2.95 −0.23 .022 −0.31 −1.09 0.47 .437 −1.11 −2.28 0.06 .062 −1.96 −3.35 −0.57 .006
 Vocational −2.35 −4.41 −0.28 .026 −0.36 −1.55 0.83 .552 −0.5 −2.27 1.28 .583 −1.96 −4.07 0.15 .069
 A level / Pre-university / Diploma −1.68 −3.1 −0.26 .021 −0.44 −1.26 0.38 .292 −0.54 −1.76 0.69 .390 −0.93 −2.38 0.53 .210
 University & Above Reference                
Employment Status
 Students and Homemakers −0.91 −2 0.19 .104 −0.11 −0.74 0.52 .735 −0.86 −1.8 0.08 .073 0.56 −0.55 1.68 .323
 Unemployed −0.49 −2.17 1.19 .568 −0.84 −1.81 0.13 .089 0.25 −1.2 1.7 .733 −0.3 −2.02 1.41 .728
 Employed Reference                
Relationship of primary caregivers with Ill relative
 Spouse −0.39 −1.73 0.95 .568 −0.84 −1.61 −0.07 .033 0 −1.16 1.15 .995 −1.16 −2.53 0.21 .096
 Son/Daughter −0.64 −2.33 1.05 .456 0.03 −0.94 1 .951 −0.15 −1.6 1.3 .839 −1.39 −3.11 0.34 .115
 Siblings −0.38 −2.33 1.56 .700 0.52 −0.6 1.64 .360 0.15 −1.53 1.82 .863 −0.61 −2.6 1.38 .546
 Other Relatives −0.34 −2.95 2.26 .797 0.37 −1.13 1.87 .629 0.2 −2.04 2.45 .860 1.23 −1.43 3.89 .364
 Parent Reference                
Living Arrangement
 Lives alone 0.53 −4.2 5.27 .825 0.7 −2.02 3.43 .613 1.01 −3.07 5.09 .628 1.71 −3.12 6.55 .486
 Lives with parents 1.22 −0.37 2.81 .133 −0.01 −0.93 0.9 .978 0.75 −0.62 2.12 .280 0.36 −1.26 1.99 .659
 Lives with other relatives 0.26 −2.43 2.96 .847 −0.98 −2.53 0.57 .216 −0.42 −2.74 1.9 .721 −1.57 −4.32 1.18 .263
 Lives with children −1.13 −2.8 0.54 .183 −1.3 −2.26 −0.34 .008 −1.21 −2.65 0.22 .098 −2.2 −3.9 −0.5 .012
 Others 1.86 −0.64 4.35 .144 −0.47 −1.91 0.96 .518 −1.39 −3.54 0.76 .204 −0.53 −3.08 2.02 .683
 Lives with Spouse/partner Reference                
Diagnosis of Ill relative
 Early Psychosis 0.63 −1.26 2.53 .512 0.49 −0.64 1.61 .394 0.71 −0.92 2.35 .392 0.91 −1.03 2.85 .357
 Depressive disorder −0.28 −1.28 0.72 .580 0.14 −0.44 0.71 .645 0.42 −0.45 1.28 .344 0.16 −0.86 1.18 .761
 Anxiety disorder (OCD & GAD) −0.52 −2.13 1.1 .529 −0.27 −1.2 0.66 .571 −0.94 −2.33 0.46 .187 −1.08 −2.73 0.58 .201
 Dementia −1.01 −3.08 1.07 .340 0.09 −1.11 1.28 .884 −1.24 −3.03 0.55 .174 −1.12 −3.24 1 .298
 Others 0.84 −1.74 3.43 .521 0.01 −1.48 1.49 .994 −1.13 −3.36 1.1 .318 −2.4 −5.04 0.25 .075
 Unknown 0.4 −1.26 2.06 .635 −0.11 −1.06 0.85 .828 −0.58 −2.01 0.85 .427 −0.55 −2.25 1.15 .522
 Chronic Schizophrenia Reference                
FIS scores −0.32 −0.47 −0.18 <.001 −0.14 −0.22 −0.06 .001 −0.37 −0.49 −0.25 <.001 −0.44 −0.59 −0.3 <.001
R-squared Values (R2) 0.25 0.26 0.29 0.3
  1. Beta coefficients were derived using multiple linear regression analyses after adjusting for socio-demographic variables, other caregiver psychological status scales and impact on informant scores
  2. p value <0.05 is highlight in bold