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Table 3 Socio-demographic correlates of Quality of Life (QOL)

From: Psychological status and quality of life among primary caregivers of individuals with mental illness: a hospital based study

  Quality of Life (QOL) four domains
Physical health Psychological Social relationships Environmental
Socio-demographic variables Beta co-efficient 95% CI p value Beta co-efficient 95% CI p value Beta co-efficient 95% CI p value Beta co-efficient 95% CI p value
Age Group
 21–34 −0.43 −2.55 1.69 .689 0.72 −0.45 1.89 .226 −1.05 −2.87 0.76 .253 0.63 −1.50 2.76 .564
 35–49 −1.02 −2.93 0.90 .297 0.69 −0.36 1.75 .197 −0.95 −2.58 0.69 .255 0.35 −1.57 2.27 .722
 50–64 0.38 −1.17 1.93 .628 0.37 −0.49 1.23 .396 −0.68 −2.00 0.64 .311 0.87 −0.69 2.42 .272
 65+ Reference                
Ethnicity
 Malay −0.23 −1.41 0.95 .703 −0.28 −0.93 0.37 .398 0.42 −0.59 1.43 .415 −0.32 −1.51 0.87 .595
 Indian 0.50 −0.72 1.72 .420 0.40 −0.28 1.07 .247 0.46 −0.58 1.51 .382 −0.10 −1.32 1.13 .876
 Others −0.24 −4.06 3.57 .900 1.37 −0.73 3.48 .200 1.08 −2.18 4.35 .513 −1.34 −5.17 2.50 .494
 Chinese Reference                
Gender
 Men 0.31 −0.77 1.39 .571 0.38 −0.22 0.97 .211 −0.11 −1.03 0.81 .816 −0.10 −1.18 0.99 .862
 Women Reference                
Marital Status
 Single −0.31 −1.82 1.20 .685 −1.93 −2.76 −1.10 <.001 −0.79 −2.08 0.49 .227 0.28 −1.23 1.80 .713
 Widowed 2.93 0.38 5.47 .025 −0.99 −2.39 0.42 .168 0.47 −1.71 2.65 .670 2.16 −0.40 4.72 .098
 Divorced/Separated 0.16 −2.19 2.50 .895 −1.50 −2.83 −0.17 .027 0.94 −1.06 2.95 .357 1.08 −1.28 3.44 .368
 Married Reference                
Education
 No formal/Primary −3.39 −5.24 −1.54 <.001 −0.60 −1.61 0.42 .252 −3.35 −4.93 −1.77 <.001 −3.74 −5.60 −1.89 <.001
 Secondary −1.66 −3.09 −0.22 .024 −0.33 −1.12 0.46 .414 −1.22 −2.44 0.01 .052 −2.06 −3.50 −0.61 .005
 Vocational −2.59 −4.78 −0.41 .020 −0.44 −1.64 0.77 .478 −0.67 −2.54 1.20 .480 −2.16 −4.36 0.04 .054
 A level / Pre-university / Diploma −1.69 −3.19 −0.18 .028 −0.44 −1.27 0.39 .298 −0.57 −1.86 0.72 .386 −0.95 −2.47 0.56 .217
 University & Above Reference                
Employment Status
 Students and Homemakers −1.09 −2.24 0.07 .065 −0.16 −0.80 0.47 .614 −0.93 −1.92 0.05 .063 0.46 −0.70 1.62 .438
 Unemployed −1.11 −2.88 0.65 .216 −1.03 −2.00 −0.05 .039 −0.23 −1.74 1.28 .766 −0.84 −2.62 0.94 .355
 Employed Reference                
Relationship of primary caregivers with Ill relative
 Spouse −0.33 −1.75 1.09 .646 −0.82 −1.61 −0.04 .039 0.05 −1.17 1.26 .940 −1.11 −2.53 0.32 .128
 Son/Daughter 0.12 −1.63 1.87 .894 0.26 −0.71 1.22 .601 0.24 −1.26 1.73 .754 −0.88 −2.64 0.88 .325
 Siblings 0.06 −1.99 2.11 .953 0.65 −0.48 1.78 .256 0.34 −1.41 2.10 .699 −0.34 −2.40 1.72 .747
 Other Relatives 0.54 −2.20 3.29 .697 0.64 −0.87 2.15 .407 0.92 −1.43 3.26 .443 2.01 −0.75 4.77 .153
 Parent Reference                
Living Arrangement
 Lives alone −0.39 −5.40 4.62 .880 0.42 −2.34 3.18 .763 0.28 −4.00 4.56 .898 0.91 −4.12 5.95 .721
 Lives with parents 0.95 −0.72 2.62 .265 −0.09 −1.01 0.83 .844 0.70 −0.72 2.13 .334 0.25 −1.43 1.93 .770
 Lives with other relatives 0.44 −2.42 3.29 .764 −0.92 −2.49 0.65 .249 −0.21 −2.65 2.22 .863 −1.36 −4.23 1.50 .350
 Lives with children −1.40 −3.17 0.36 .119 −1.38 −2.36 −0.41 .005 −1.45 −2.96 0.06 .060 −2.45 −4.23 −0.68 .007
 Others 0.77 −1.84 3.39 .561 −0.80 −2.24 0.64 .276 −2.30 −4.54 −0.07 .044 −1.52 −4.15 1.12 .258
 Lives with Spouse/partner Reference                
Diagnosis of Ill relative
 Early Psychosis 0.62 −1.38 2.63 .541 0.47 −0.66 1.61 .412 0.59 −1.13 2.30 .501 0.81 −1.20 2.83 .427
 Depressive disorder −0.44 −1.50 0.62 .413 0.09 −0.50 0.67 .769 0.30 −0.61 1.21 .515 0.03 −1.04 1.09 .960
 Anxiety disorder (OCD & GAD) −0.67 −2.39 1.04 .439 −0.31 −1.26 0.63 .512 −1.06 −2.52 0.41 .156 −1.21 −2.93 0.51 .167
 Dementia −1.53 −3.72 0.67 .172 −0.07 −1.27 1.14 .915 −1.56 −3.43 0.32 .103 −1.51 −3.71 0.70 .179
 Others 1.73 −0.99 4.45 .212 0.27 −1.23 1.77 .720 −0.53 −2.86 1.80 .654 −1.70 −4.43 1.04 .223
 Unknown 0.73 −1.03 2.49 .418 −0.01 −0.98 0.96 .991 −0.32 −1.83 1.18 .675 −0.27 −2.04 1.50 .765
 Chronic Schizophrenia Reference                
FIS scores −0.49 −0.63 −0.35 <.001 −0.19 −0.27 −0.11 <.001 −0.51 −0.63 −0.39 <.001 −0.59 −0.73 −0.45 <.001
R-squared Values (R2) 0.17 0.18 0.21 0.23
  1. p value <0.05 is highlight in bold