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Table 4 Distribution (%) and odds ratios (ORs) for demographic and health status characteristics by latent class

From: Latent variable mixture models to test for differential item functioning: a population-based analysis

  Distribution (%) OR (95% CI)
Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 2 Class 3
Physical Functioning
Class Frequencies 5933 2081 1323   
Sex
 Men 35.5 23.4 20.6 Ref Ref
 Women 64.5 76.6 79.4 1.66 (1.44, 1.91) 1.76 (1.48, 2.10)
Age
 25–64 years 60.5 40.7 31.0 Ref Ref
  ≥ 65 years 39.5 59.3 69.0 1.69 (1.48, 1.92) 1.81 (1.55, 2.12)
Education
 Postsecondary 53.7 43.7 33.0 Ref Ref
 High school graduate 14.9 14.0 13.8 1.01 (0.84, 1.22) 1.11 (0.88, 1.38)
 Less than high school 31.4 42.4 53.2 1.13 (0.98, 1.30) 1.32 (1.12, 1.56)
General Health
 Excellent/Very good 68.1 42.0 30.0 Ref Ref
 Good 26.3 43.2 40.7 1.99 (1.73, 2.29) 1.86 (1.58, 2.18)
 Fair/Poor 5.6 14.8 29.3 2.42 (1.94, 3.01) 3.53 (2.78, 4.47)
Weight Status
 Underweight/Normal 37.1 39.3 31.9 Ref Ref
 Overweight/Obese 62.9 60.7 68.1 0.99 (0.87, 1.12) 1.21 (1.04, 1.41)
HUI3
 High (≥0.8) 81.1 58.9 38.3 Ref Ref
 Low (<0.8) 18.9 41.1 61.8 1.92 (1.67, 2.22) 2.62 (2.22, 3.09)
Mental Health
Class Frequencies 7337 2058    
Sex
 Men 30.9 29.7   Ref  
 Women 69.1 70.3   1.03 (0.90, 1.17)  
Age
 25–64 years 53.8 44.8   Ref  
  ≥ 65 years 46.3 55.2   1.18 (1.05, 1.33)  
Education
 Postsecondary 50.2 42.4   Ref  
 High school graduate 14.6 14.1   1.09 (0.91, 1.30)  
 Less than high school 35.2 43.4   1.21 (1.06, 1.38)  
General Health
 Excellent/Very good 58.7 49.8   Ref  
 Good 31.1 36.5   1.13 (1.00, 1.28)  
 Fair/Poor 10.3 13.8   1.17 (0.95, 1.43)  
Weight Status
 Underweight/Normal 37.4 34.8   Ref  
 Overweight/Obese 62.6 65.2   1.07 (0.96, 1.21)  
HUI3
 High (≥0.8) 71.5 65.0   Ref  
 Low (<0.8) 28.5 35.0   1.01 (0.89, 1.16)  
  1. 95% CI = 95% confidence interval; HUI3 = Health Utilities Index Mark 3; bold values indicate ORs that are statistically significant at α = .05. Class 1 is the reference group for both models. For the physical functioning sub-scale, the latent variable mixture model has three classes, while for the mental health sub-scale, the latent variable mixture model has two classes