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Table 1 Differences between demographic and clinical factors of non-functional disability and functional disability patients

From: Functional disability associated with disease and quality-of-life parameters in Chinese patients with rheumatoid arthritis

Variables Overall sample Non-functional disability (HAQ-DI score < 1) Functional disability (HAQ-DI score ≥ 1) P-value
Female gender, no. (%) 85 (84.2) 72 (84.7) 13 (81.2) 0.715
Age, years 54.9 ± 11.9 54.9 ± 12.2 55.3 ± 10.3 0.904
BMI, kg/m2 22.5 ± 3.1 22.3 ± 2.9 23.7 ± 3.6 0.089
Education, years, no. (%)     0.755
  < 9 years 76 (75.2) 63 (74.1) 13 (81.2)  
  ≥ 9 years 25 (24.8) 22 (25.9) 3 (18.8)  
Income/person/month, no. (%)     0.454
  ≤ 1000 Yuan 54 (53.5) 43 (50.6) 11 (68.8)  
 1000–3000 Yuan 36 (35.6) 33 (38.8) 3 (18.8)  
 3000–5000 Yuan 7 (6.9) 6 (7.1) 1 (6.2)  
  ≥ 5000 Yuan 4 (4.0) 3 (3.5) 1 (6.2)  
Working status, no. (%)     0.512
 Employed 21 (20.8) 19 (22.4) 2 (12.5)  
 Unemployed 80 (79.2) 66 (77.6) 14 (87.5)  
Health insurance, yes, no. (%) 65 (64.4) 55 (64.7) 10 (62.5) 0.938
Comorbidities, yes, no. (%) 53 (52.5) 43 (50.6) 10 (62.5) 0.425
Disease duration, years 8.0 ± 8.4 7.1 ± 7.7 13.1 ± 10.5 0.042*
VAS pain score (range 0–100) 42.6 ± 26.2 37.6 ± 23.9 69.1 ± 22.4 <0.001**
TJC (28 joints) 4.2 ± 6.1 3.1 ± 4.9 9.5 ± 9.0 0.013*
SJC (28 joints) 2.5 ± 3.5 2.0 ± 3.2 5.1 ± 4.1 0.001**
DAS28 3.5 ± 1.5 3.2 ± 1.4 4.9 ± 1.6 <0.001**
ESR, mm/h 25.7 ± 25.6 23.8 ± 23.7 36.1 ± 33.1 0.077
CRP, mg/l 15.6 ± 24.4 14.1 ± 23.4 23.6 ± 28.6 <0.001**
RF positivity, yes, no. (%) 77 (76.2) 63 (74.1) 14 (87.5) 0.346
Medication adherence, yes, no. (%) 40 (39.6) 37 (43.5) 3 (18.8) 0.024*
Grip strength ǂ (kg) 13.9 ± 9.0 14.9 ± 9.1 9.0 ± 6.7 0.016*
Pinch strength ǂ (kg) 3.3 ± 2.3 3.4 ± 2.3 2.7 ± 1.9 0.205
Wrist flexion ǂ (degrees) 39.7 ± 16.6 42.8 ± 14.7 23.3 ± 17.0 <0.001**
Wrist extension ǂ (degrees) 36.3 ± 15.4 39.8 ± 13.0 18.3 ± 14.9 <0.001**
Shoulder flexion ǂ (degrees) 129.0 ± 29.4 133.1 ± 26.0 107.1 ± 37.1 0.001**
Shoulder abduction ǂ (degrees) 126.6 ± 30.2 130.1 ± 25.9 107.8 ± 43.4 0.063
Elbow flexion ǂ (degrees) 124.2 ± 26.5 127.3 ± 23.2 107.8 ± 36.4 0.006**
Hip flexion ǂ (degrees) 77.0 ± 18.5 78.1 ± 17.0 71.2 ± 24.9 0.304
Knee flexion ǂ (degrees) 98.5 ± 27.3 102.9 ± 21.9 75.0 ± 39.7 0.014*
Ankle dorsiflexion ǂ (degrees) 12.3 ± 10.2 12.3 ± 10.6 12.0 ± 8.3 0.910
Ankle plantarflexion ǂ (degrees) 44.3 ± 14.7 45.8 ± 14.2 36.4 ± 14.9 0.017*
  1. Values are presented as the number (%) or the mean ± SD. HAQ-DI the health assessment questionnaire-disability index, BMI body mass index, VAS visual analog scale, TJC tender joint count, SJC swollen joint count, DAS28 Disease Activity Score in 28 joints, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate, CRP C-reactive protein, RF rheumatoid factor. ǂ Mean of right and left sides. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01