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Table 2 Factors associated with S-QoL18 index and dimensions

From: Caregiver’s quality of life and its positive impact on symptomatology and quality of life of patients with schizophrenia

Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
  S-QoL18 index p S-QoL18 index PsW SE RFa RFr RE PhW AU SL
M ± SDa or Rb ßc ß ß ß ß ß ß ß ß
Caregivers
Quality of life S-CGQoL 0.14 0.032 0.05 0.09 −0.12 0.23** 0.10 −0.15 −0.10 −0.09 0.11
Patients
Age in years   −0.09 0.142 −0.12 −0.17 0.09 −0.14 −0.12 −0.16 0.02 0.14 −0.16
Gender Women 52.7 ± 15.7 0.208 −0.20* 0.11 −0.07 −0.45** −0.10 −0.17 −0.10 −0.19 −0.03
Men (Ref) 55.1 ± 13.8  
Ethnicity Non-Aymara 58.7 ± 17.2 0.035 0.19* 0.13 0.00 0.00 0.28** 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.22*
Aymara (Ref) 52.3 ± 14.2
Marital status Without a partner 54.2 ± 14.6 0.794 - - - - - - - - -
With a partner (Ref) 53.2 ± 13.4
Educational level ≥12 years 62.5 ± 11.5 <0.001 0.14 0.31** 0.05 −0.04 0.05 0.05 0.04 0.06 0.12
<12 years (Ref) 52.7 ± 14.4
Employment status With employment 59.2 ± 13.4 <0.001 0.15 0.082 0.15 0.02 0.12 0.18* 0.06 0.09 0.01
Without employment (Ref) 52.1 ± 14.5
Monthly family income (US Dollars)   0.08 0.246 - - - - - - - - -
Duration of disorder in years   −0.05 0.399 - - - - - - - - -
Number of hospitalizations   −0.09 0.168 −0.03 0.05 0.03 0.11 −0.15 −0.04 −0.01 0.11 −0.11
Type of treatment Integrated 58.6 ± 11.8 0.076 0.06 0.11 0.13 −0.07 −0.01 0.12 0.15 −0.01 −0.07
Only pharmacological (Ref) 53.7 ± 14.7
Symptoms severity - PANSS total score −0.37 <0.001 −0.23* −0.27** −0.15 −0.10 −0.11 −0.01 −0.12 −0.22* −0.10
PANSS negative −0.35 <0.001 - - - - - - - - -
PANSS positive −0.26 <0.001 - - - - - - - - -
PANSS excitation −0.24 <0.001 - - - - - - - - -
PANSS anxiety/depression −0.17 0.006 - - - - - - - - -
PANSS cognition −0.30 <0.001 - - - - - - - - -
  1. aM ± SD: mean ± standard deviation; bR: Spearman’s correlation coefficient; cß: standardised beta coefficient (ß represents the change of the standard deviation in QoL score resulting from a change of one standard deviation in the independent variable); *p ≤ 0.05; **p ≤ 0.01
  2. S-QoL18 schizophrenia quality of life questionnaire, PsW psychological well-being, SE self-esteem, RFa family relationships, RFr relationships with friends, RE resilience, PhW physical well-being, AU autonomy, SL sentimental life
  3. Number of hospitalizations: since the last 3 years before present hospitalization
  4. PANSS positive and negative syndrome scale for schizophrenia, total score and dimensions
  5. S-CGQoL schizophrenia caregiver quality of life questionnaire