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Table 3 Item analysis: Overview of the item-level fit statistics of the DSWAL-QoL and aDSWAL-QoL

From: Validation of the Dutch version of the Swallowing Quality-of-Life Questionnaire (DSWAL-QoL) and the adjusted DSWAL-QoL (aDSWAL-QoL) using item analysis with the Rasch model: a pilot study

Scale (# items) Disordered thresholds Misfitting items DIF LID
  DSWAL-QoL
Item No
aDSWAL-QoL
Item No
DSWAL-QoL
Item No
aDSWAL-QoL
Item No
DSWAL-QoL Item No aDSWAL-QoL
Item No
DSWAL-QoL Item No aDSWAL-QoL Item No
Total scale (44) 1–7,9,11–15,17, 19,22–44 1–7,10,11,13,14, 17–41,43 5: FR = 6.1a
6: FR = 6.2a
7: FR = 4.1a
32: FR = −2.3a
34: FR = −2.0a
40: FR = 3.4a
41: FR = 2.6
2: FR = −2.8a
5: FR = 2.7a
6: FR = 5.9a
25: FR = 3.2
29: FR = 5.4a
32: FR = −2.7a
40: FR = 3.5a
41: FR = 3.2
5b 1,2,6,9,32,43b clusters within and across subscales
General burden (2) 1,2        
Eating duration (2) 3,4 3     3b   
Eating desire (3) 5,6,7 5,6,7       
Symptoms (14) 9,11–19,20 9,11–15,17,19,20      8/9 9/10,
19/20
Food selection (2) 22,23 22,23       
Communication (2)   24       
Fear of eating (4) 26,27,28,29 26,27,28,29   29: FR = 3.2a 26b 26b   26/28
Mental health (5) 30 30,33,34     31c   
Social functioning (5) 35,36,37,38,39 35,36,37,38,39       
Sleep (2) 40,41 40       
Fatigue (3) 42,43,44        
  1. Abbreviations: DSWAL-QoL Dutch version of the Swallowing Quality-of-Life, aDSWAL-QoL adjusted DSWAL-QoL, No number, DIF differential item functioning, LID local item dependence, FR fit residuals
  2. aIndicates significant chi-square at p < 0.001
  3. bUniform DIF
  4. cNon-uniform DIF