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Table 6 Construct validity of English PIDAQ with regards to self-perceived need for dental correction

From: Validation and reliability of the Malaysian English version of the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics questionnaire for adolescents

PIDAQ variables Need Braces N PIDAQ Scores p value
Mean SD Quartiles
      Lower Middle Upper  
12–14 years
 Dental Self-Confidence No 68 18.8 4.8 16.0 19.0 22.0 0.00*
Yes 85 13.3 5.3 9.0 13.0 17.0
 Social Impact No 68 15.8 5.3 12.0 15.0 19.0 0.00*
Yes 85 21.1 6.9 15.5 20.0 27.0
 Psychological Impact No 68 14.7 4.6 11.0 14.0 17.0 0.00*
Yes 85 18.3 5.6 14.0 17.0 23.5
 Aesthetic Concern No 68 4.0 1.7 2.3 4.0 5.0 0.00*
Yes 85 5.3 2.0 4.0 5.0 6.0
Total PIDAQ No 68 53.3 10.0 46.0 53.0 58.0 0.01*
  Yes 85 58.0 11.8 49.0 57.0 69.0
15–17 years
 Dental Self-Confidence No 47 18.9 4.3 16.0 18.0 22.0 0.00*
Yes 98 13.4 5.3 10.0 13.0 16.0
 Social Impact No 47 15.6 5.5 10.0 17.0 20.0 0.00*
Yes 98 21.7 6.5 17.0 22.0 25.0
 Psychological Impact No 47 13.3 4.4 9.0 13.0 17.0 0.00*
Yes 98 19.4 5.1 15.0 20.0 23.0
 Aesthetic Concern No 47 3.7 1.4 2.0 4.0 5.0 0.00*
Yes 98 5.4 1.8 4.0 5.0 6.3
 Total PIDAQ No 47 51.4 9.9 44.0 51.0 57.0 0.00*
  Yes 98 59.9 11.7 51.0 61.0 68.3
12–17 years
 Dental Self-Confidence No 115 18.8 4.6 16.0 19.0 22.0 0.00*
Yes 183 13.4 5.1 10.0 13.0 16.0
 Social Impact No 115 15.7 5.4 11.0 15.0 19.0 0.00*
Yes 183 21.4 6.7 16.0 21.0 26.0
 Psychological Impact No 115 14.1 4.5 10.0 14.0 17.0 0.00*
Yes 183 18.9 5.3 15.0 19.0 23.0
 Aesthetic Concern No 115 3.9 1.6 2.0 4.0 5.0 0.00*
Yes 183 5.3 1.9 4.0 5.0 6.0
 Total PIDAQ No 115 52.5 10.0 45.0 53.0 58.0 0.00*
Yes 183 59.0 11.7 50.0 59.0 69.0
  1. *p < 0.05; Excluded those who answered ‘don’t know’