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Table 5 Construct validity of the adapted English PIDAQ with regards to self-perceived dental appearance rank

From: Validation and reliability of the Malaysian English version of the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics questionnaire for adolescents

PIDAQ variables Rate Appearance N PIDAQ Scores p value
Mean SD Quartiles
      Lower Middle Upper  
12–14 years
 Dental Self-Confidence Excellent 20 20.0 5.3 14.0 22.5 23.8 0.00*
Good 111 17.6 4.9 14.0 18.0 20.0
Average 54 12.7 4.4 9.8 13.0 16.0
Poor 17 9.9 4.2 7.0 8.0 11.5
 Social Impact Excellent 20 16.7 5.1 12.0 16.0 20.5 0.00*
Good 111 17.1 5.8 12.0 16.0 22.0
Average 54 19.7 6.5 14.8 19.0 24.5
Poor 17 25.7 7.0 21.0 27.0 30.5
 Psychological Impact Excellent 20 14.8 5.2 10.5 15.0 17.0 0.00*
Good 111 15.1 4.7 12.0 15.0 19.0
Average 54 17.9 4.7 14.0 17.5 21.3
Poor 17 21.7 5.5 18.0 23.0 26.0
 Aesthetic Concern Excellent 20 3.8 1.7 2.0 3.0 5.8 0.00*
Good 111 4.1 1.9 3.0 4.0 5.0
Average 54 5.1 1.9 4.0 5.0 6.0
Poor 17 6.5 2.2 4.5 6.0 8.5
 Total PIDAQ Excellent 20 55.2 8.7 49.5 53.5 60.5 0.02*
Good 111 54.0 10.9 46.0 54.0 62.0
Average 54 55.4 11.2 46.8 53.0 66.3
Poor 17 63.8 12.1 53.0 67.0 74.0
15–17 years
 Dental Self-Confidence Excellent 18 19.9 6.5 13.8 21.0 25.5 0.00*
Good 78 17.5 4.4 14.0 17.0 21.0
Average 73 13.3 3.8 10.5 13.0 16.0
Poor 21 9.2 2.6 6.5 10.0 11.5
 Social Impact Excellent 18 17.7 6.9 9.8 18.0 22.8 0.00*
Good 78 16.8 5.7 12.8 17.0 20.0
Average 73 21.6 5.6 17.5 22.0 26.0
Poor 21 25.6 8.1 19.0 25.0 31.5
 Psychological Impact Excellent 18 15.4 5.9 9.8 15.5 20.0 0.00*
Good 78 14.3 4.7 11.0 13.0 18.0
Average 73 19.1 4.4 15.0 20.0 22.5
Poor 21 22.2 5.5 17.5 24.0 27.0
 Aesthetic Concern Excellent 18 4.0 2.3 2.0 3.0 6.0 0.00*
Good 78 4.1 1.6 2.8 4.0 5.0
Average 73 5.3 1.4 4.0 5.0 6.0
Poor 21 6.1 2.3 4.0 6.0 8.0
 Total PIDAQ Excellent 18 56.6 11.3 45.0 54.5 64.8 0.00*
Good 78 52.6 11.0 44.0 53.0 61.3
Average 73 59.3 10.5 52.0 59.0 67.5
Poor 21 63.1 14.1 50.0 67.0 74.0
12–17 years
 Dental Self-Confidence Excellent 38 20.0 5.8 14.0 21.5 24.3 0.00*
Good 189 17.6 4.7 14.0 18.0 20.5
Average 127 13.0 4.0 10.0 13.0 16.0
Poor 38 9.5 3.4 7.0 9.0 11.3
 Social Impact Excellent 38 16.9 6.0 11.8 16.0 22.0 0.00*
Good 189 17.0 5.7 12.5 17.0 21.0
Average 127 20.8 6.0 16.0 20.0 26.0
Poor 38 25.6 7.5 19.8 27.0 31.0
 Psychological Impact Excellent 38 15.1 5.5 10.0 15.0 18.3 0.00*
Good 189 14.8 4.7 11.0 15.0 18.0
Average 127 18.6 4.6 15.0 19.0 22.0
Poor 38 22.0 5.4 17.8 23.5 26.3
 Aesthetic Concern Excellent 38 3.9 2.0 2.0 3.0 6.0 0.00*
Good 189 4.1 1.6 3.0 4.0 5.0
Average 127 5.2 1.6 4.0 5.0 6.0
Poor 38 6.3 2.2 4.0 6.0 8.0
 Total PIDAQ Excellent 38 55.8 9.9 47.8 55.0 63.3 0.00*
Good 189 53.4 11.0 45.0 54.0 61.5
Average 127 57.6 10.9 50.0 56.0 57.0
Poor 38 63.4 13.0 50.0 67.0 74.0
  1. *p < 0.05