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Table 4 Discriminant validity of the adapted English PIDAQ with regards to self-rated (MI-S) and interviewer-rated (MI-D) malocclusion

From: Validation and reliability of the Malaysian English version of the psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics questionnaire for adolescents

Self-rated Malocclusion (MI-S)
Age group 12–14 years 15–17 years 12–17 years old
Quartile (Self perceived malocclusion level) Lower (Slight) Upper (Severe) Effect size p value Lower (Slight) Upper (Severe) Effect size p value Lower (Slight) Upper (Severe) Effect size p value
n 51 50    53 48    101 98   
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD)    Mean (SD) Mean (SD)    Mean (SD) Mean (SD)   
Dental Self-Confidence 19.0 (4.6) 13.2 (5.0) −1.23 0.00* 18.4 (4.8) 13.2 (4.6) −1.12 0.00* 18.7 (4.7) 13.1 (4.9) −1.18 0.00*
Social Impact 14.7 (5.3) 22.8 (6.8) 1.38 0.00* 16.0 (5.9) 23.1 (6.2) 1.19 0.00* 15.4 (5.7) 22.9 (6.5) 1.24 0.00*
Psychological Impact 13.1 (4.5) 19.44 (5.65) 1.28 0.00* 13.3 (4.6) 20.8 (4.00) 1.76 0.00* 13.33 (4.54) 20.2 (5.0) 1.44 0.00*
Aesthetic Concern 3.5 (1.5) 5.9 (2.0) 1.33 0.00* 3.6 (1.5) 5.9 (2.0) 1.31 0.00* 3.6 (1.5) 5.9 (2.0) 1.35 0.00*
Total PIDAQ 50.4 (10.4) 61.3 (12.4) 0.96 0.00* 51.4 (11.0) 63.0 (10.1) 1.12 0.00* 51.1 (10.7) 62.1 (11.3) 1.01 0.00*
Investigator-rated Malocclusion (MI-D)
Age group 12–14 years 15–17 years 12–17 years
Quartile (Investigator-rated malocclusion level) Lower (Slight) Upper (Severe) Effect size p value Lower (Slight) Upper (Severe) Effect size p value Lower (Slight) Upper (Severe) Effect size p value
n 48 50    46 47    94 97   
  Mean (SD) Mean (SD)    Mean (SD) Mean (SD)    Mean (SD) Mean (SD)   
Dental Self-Confidence 17.5 (4.9) 13.2 (4.8) −0.90 0.00* 17.1 (5.3) 13.3 (5.1) −0.75 0.00* 17.3 (5.1) 13.2 (4.9) −0.83 0.00*
Social Impact 16.9 (6.3) 19.2 (7.2) 0.34 0.10 17.3 (6.7) 21.0 (6.8) 0.56 0.01* 17.1 (6.5) 20.0 (7.1) 0.43 0.00*
Psychological Impact 15.4 (5.2) 16.5 (5.5) 0.22 0.29 14.6 (5.5) 18.5 (5.3) 0.73 0.00* 15.0 (5.3) 17.4 (5.5) 0.45 0.00*
Aesthetic Concern 4.2 (1.8) 4.8 (1.8) 0.31 0.11 4.2 (1.7) 5.4 (1.8) 0.73 0.00* 4.2 (1.8) 5.1 (1.8) 0.49 0.00*
Total PIDAQ 54.0 (10.9) 53.6 (12.6) −0.03 0.89 53.1 (11.7) 58.2 (1.7) 0.44 0.04* 53.5 (11.2) 55.6 (12.2) 0.18 0.22
  1. *p < 0.05