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Table 3 Obstructive sleep apnea, sleepiness, and fatigue as risk factors for poorer respiratory-specific health-related quality of life

From: Fatigue and sleepiness determine respiratory quality of life among veterans evaluated for sleep apnea

Risk factor OR 95% CI p-value
OSA [Referent = None]
 Mild 1.28 0.81; 2.01 0.29
 Moderate/severe 1.19 0.76; 1.86 0.45
ESS 1.37 1.17; 1.60 <0.01
FSS 2.38 1.90; 2.99 <0.01
SF-12 PCS 1.79 1.47; 2.17 <0.01
Asthma 3.78 2.56; 5.59 <0.01
COPD 2.59 1.51; 4.41 <0.01
ILD 26.53 2.72; 258.46 <0.01
  1. Poor respiratory-specific QOL defined as the 20% highest AQ-20R scores, 11 through 20
  2. Mild OSA defined as apnea-hypopnea index greater than 5 but lower to 15. Moderate or severe obstructive sleep apnea defined as apnea-hypopnea index equal as or higher than 15
  3. ESS, FSS, PCS of the Short Form-12 are scaled per standard deviation units for comparability among scales. The PCS of the Short Form-12 is reversed scored for this analysis to indicate risk with poorer generic quality of life
  4. Age, sex, marital status and BMI were included in the model (other than younger age (OR 0.99, p = 0.03), none were statistically significantly associated with poorer QOL)
  5. Abbreviations: BMI Body Mass Index, ESS Epworth Sleepiness Scale, FSS Fatigue Severity Scale, OR Odds Ratio, OSA Obstructive Sleep Apnea, PCS Physical Component Scale of the Short Form-12, QOL Quality of Life